The European Union

Eurozone
See Euroarea
Euro Area
The economic area that covers those countries that have so far joined the EU’s single currency.
European Integration
The process of political and economic (and possibly also cultural and social) integration of the states of Europe into a unified bloc.
Integration
The combination of parts of a unified whole-that is, a dynamic process of change. European integration is usually associated with the intensely institutionalized form of cooperation found in Europe after 1951.
Cooperation
Usually implies government-to-government relations (with little supranational involvement).
Governance
The intentional regulation of social relationships and the underlying conflicts by reliable and durable means and institutions, instead of the direct use of power and violence.
Bipolarity
The understanding of the international system before the end of the Cold War as being structured around the two superpowers-namely, the U.S. and Soviet Union.
Qualified Majority Voting (QMV)
A system of voting based on the qualified majority, which is the number of votes required in the Council for a decision to be adopted when issues are being debated on the basis of Article 16 TEU and Article 238 TFEU. Under the ordinary legislative procedure (OLP), the Council acts by qualified majority in combination with the European Parliament. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, a new system known as ‘double majority’ was introduced. It will enter into force on 1 November 2014.
Normative
Of value judgments-that is, ‘what ought to be’, as opposed to positive statements about ‘what is’.
Liberal-democratic
A system of representative government that is characterized by universal adult suffrage, political equality, majority rule, and a constitutional check on the power of rulers.
Acquis-Communautaire
A French term that refers literally to the Community patrimony. It is the cumulative body of the objectives, substantive rules, policies, and in particular, the primary and secondary legislation and case law-all of which form part of the legal order of the EU. It includes the content of the treaties, legislation, judgments by the courts, and international agreements. All member states are bound to comply with the acquis communautaire.
Libson Treaty
Revising the Nice version of the TEU, the Libson Treaty was signed in 2007 and entered into force in December 2009 after a protracted ratification.
European Council
A body that defines the general political direction and priorities of the EU. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Libson on 1 December 2009, it became an institution, with its own president.
European Central Bank (ECB)
Established in Frankfurt in 1999, the central bank is responsible for the single monetary policy in the euro area.
Interdependent
The extent to which the actions of one state impact upon others.
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
A form of integration that combines the features of the economic union (which implies the existence of a single market, but also a high degree of coordination of the most important areas of economic policy and market regulation, as well as monetary policies and income redistribution policies) and the monetary union, which implies further integration in the area of currency cooperation. The process involves three stages and the fulfillment of the so-called convergence criteria by all participating countries.
Fiscal Policy
The means by which a government adjusts its levels of spending in order to monitor and influence a nation’s economy.
Copenhagen Criteria
The criteria that applicant states have to meet in order to join the EU. It was agreed at the Copenhagen European Council meeting in 1993.
Enlargements
The process of expanding the EU geographically to include new member states.
European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
An international organization set up in 1960 to promote free trade amongst its members. Most of its original members have since joined the European Union.
Gross National Product (GNP)
A measure of the country’s total economic activity.
Single Markets
The goal of one unified internal EU market, free of (national) barriers to trade. While the idea was included in the Treaty of Rome, the single market is usually associated with the revitalization of the Community from the mid-1980’s.
Intergovernmental
Cooperation that involves sovereign states and which occurs on a government-to-government basis, without the extensive involvement of supranational actors.
Supranational
Above the national level. It may refer to institutions, policies, or a particular ‘type’ of cooperation/integration.
Community Method
The use of the established process of decision-making, which involves a Commission legislative initiative being agreed by the Council, and now usually the European Parliament. It also implies that the European Court of Justice will have jurisdiction over any decision taken.
Interest Group
Any group of individuals or associations that is organized, with shared political interests and informality, and which does not aspire to public office or to compete in elections, but rather to the pursuit of goals through frequent informal interactions with politicians and bureaucrats.
Ordinary Legislative Procedure (OLP)
The main procedure for adopting legislation in the European Union, known before the Lisbon Treaty entered into force as co-decision. The OLP makes the Parliament an equal co-legislative partner with the Council. Whilst agreement is normally concluded at first reading following informal negotiations, under the OLP the EP has the right to hold up to three readings of legislation, to reject the legislation, and to hold conciliation meetings with the Council to negotiate a compromise agreement.
Executive
The branch of government responsible for implementing laws taken by parliament; the administration.
Open Method of Coordination (OMC)
An approach toing that is an Eu policy-making that is an alternative to regulation and which involves more informal means of encouraging compliance than hard legislation.
Policy Convergence
The tendency for policies (in different countries) to begin to take on similar forms over time.
Competence
The legal capacity to deal with a matter.
Treaty of Rome
Signed in 1957, the Rome Treaty formally established the Euroepan Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom, or EAEC).
Democratic Deficit
The loss of democracy caused by the transfer of powers to the European institutions and to member state executives arising out of the European integration. It implies that representative institutions (parliaments) lose out in this process.
Maastricht Treaty
See Treaty on the European Union (TEU)
European Ombudsman
An independent body that investigates complaints about maladministration in the institutions and bodies of the European Union.
Eurobarometer
A European Commission publication and website monitoring and analyzing public opinion in te member states since 1973.
Nice Treaty
A treaty revision agreed at Nice in December 2000, signed in February 2001, and ratified in 2002. It introduced a number of institutional reforms that paved the way for the enlargement of the Union in 2004 and afterwards.
Constitutional Treaty
Sometimes known as the EU Constitution a treaty signed on 24 October 2004. It was not ratified due to negative referenda in France and the Netherlands in 2005.
Civil Society
An intermediate realm between the state and the individual or family; a particular type of political society rooted in principles of citizenship.
Citizens’ initiative
One of the new democratic instruments incorporated into the Lisbon Treaty to enhance democracy and transparency in the EU. The initiative allows 1 million EU citizens to participate directly in the development of EU policies, by calling on the European Commission to make a legislative proposal. The first initiative was registered on 9 May 2012.
Jean Monnet
One of the founders of the European integration project. The driving force behind the 1950 Schuman Plan, which led to the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), Monet became the first head of the ECSC’s High Authority. He continued to play an active role in European integration throughout his life, although often behind the scenes.
Neo-Functionalism
A theory of European integration that views integration as an incremental process, involving the spillover of integration in one sector to others, ultimately leading to come kind of political community.
Europeanization
The process of European integration itself, or ashorthand for the incorporation of European characteristics into domestic institutions, politics, and identies.
Interest Intermediation
The process of translating interests into policy, through the medium of interest organization.
Schuman Plan
Signed May (th, 1950, it lead to the setting up of the European Coal and Steel Community.
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
Established by 6 states in April 1951 by the Treaty of Paris, the ECSC allowed for the pooling of authority over coal and steel industries. Because it was based on a fifty year treaty, the ECSC ceased to exist on 23 July 2002.
Zollverein
A customs union between German states in the 18th century under Bismarck; the economic basis for German unification.
League of Nations
An international organization set up in 1922 that had as its rationale the maintenance of peace in Europe.
Altiero Spinelli
An important federalist thinker and politician (1907-86), responsible for the influential Ventotene Manifesto of 1941 and for the Parliament’s Ddraft Treaty on European Union (1984), which helped to hsape the European political agenda of the late 1980’s.
Franco-German axis
The relationship between France and Germany that is often said to lie at the heart of the European integration process.
Robert Schuman
Former French foreign minister and one of the founding fathers of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), through his Schuman Plan of 1950.
Treaty of Dunkirk
A treaty signed on 4 March 1947, between France and the UK in Dunkirk (France), as a treaty of alliance and mutual assistance against a possible German attack.
Treaty of Brussels
between Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the UK, the Treaty of Brussels (or Brussels Pact)) aimed to set out terms for economic, social, and cultural cooperation, and especially collective self-defiance. It provided for the establishment of an international organization that led to the creation of the Western Euroepan Union (WEU).
Regimes
The framework of pirnciples, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations occur. An international regime is usually considered to take the form of an international organization. It is a concept associated with neo-realism.
Western European Union (WEU)
A claborative defence agreement and extension of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels, singed in 1955. It was designed to allow for the rearmament of W. Germany. It was revitalized in the 1980’s, and subsequently served as a bridge between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the EU. Its fucntions have lately subsumed within the EU.
Council of Europe
A European political organization founded on 5 May 1949 by ten countries and distinct from the EU. The Council of Europe, based in Strasbourg, has forty-seven member countries. It seeks to develop throughout Europe common and democratic principles based on the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and other reference texts on the protection individuals.
European Economic Community (EEC)
A body created by the 1957 Treatty of Rome, its aim being to bring about economic integration, including a common market, among its six founding members: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
Federation
A way of organizing a political system, which involves the constitutionally defined sharing of functions between a federal centre and the states. A federation will usually have a bicameral parliament, a constitutional court, and a constitution.
Monetary Union
A form of integration that usually contains a single market (and therefore free movement of goods, services, labour, and capital among the participating states and common rules, tariffs, and so on, vis-à-vis third countries) and has further integration in the area of currecy cooperation. A monetary union either has irrevocably fixed exchange rates and full convertibility of currency circulating within the monetary union. It also requires integration of budgetary and monetary policies.
Konrad Adenauer
The first Chancellor of the Gederal Republic of Germany after the end of the Second World War, Adenauer held office for 14 years and was responsible for overseeing the reconstrunction of Germany in the 1950’s, particularly in the context of European integration, of which he was a key supporter.
High Authority
The original name given to the (now) European Commission in the 1950 Schuman Declaration and subsequently incorporated into the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty.
Sectoral Integration
A description of, or strategy for, integration that involves an incremental sector-by-sector approach.
Common External Tariff
A central element of any customs union: a set of common tariffs, agreed by all members, imposed on goods coming into the union from outside its borders.
Fouchet Plan
A plan proposed in 1961 and pushed by the French government, which would have led to the creation of a European intergovernmental dfence organization, but which was rejected by the EC’s member states.
Regulation
The rules or legislation made in order to provoke certain policy outcomes; one of the legislative instruments used by the Eu. EU regulations are directly effective, spelling out not only the aim of legislation, but also what must be done and how.
Luxembourg Compromise
An intergovernmental agreement arrived at in January 1966 between member states that solved the empy chair crisis. It states that when vital interests of one or more countries are at stake, members of the Council will endeavor to reach solutions that can be adopted by all, while respecting their mutual interests.
Davignon Report
A document issued by EC foreign ministers in 1970, outlining how the Community might develop its own foreign policy and setting out some initial steps to that end.
Snake
A system aimed to stabilize exchange rates within the Ec in the 1970’s.
European Monetary System (EMS)
A regulated exchange rate system established in the EC in 1979 after failures to set up economic and monetary union earlier in the decade, the EMS aimed to promote monetary cooperation and exchange rate stability.
Walter Hallstein
, a committed European, and a decisive proponent of Euroepan integration. In his opinion, the most important prerequisite for a successful political integration of Euroep was the creation of common economic institutions. As president of the Eureopan Commission, Hallstein worked towards a rapid realization of the common market.
Deepening
An intensification of integration processes and structures.
Widening
Generally refers to the enlargement of the EU, but may also be used to denote the increasing scope of Community or Union competences.
Charles de Gaulle
President of France from 1959-1969, de Gaulle was responsible for keeping the UK out of the EEC is said to have slowed down the Europe integration process after 1966.
Unanimity
The principle that all the member states must vote in favour for an agreement to be reached. It implies that each member state hold a potential veto.
Empty Chair Crisis
The crisis that affected the Euroepan Community after July 1965 when France boycotted the meetings of the Council in opposition to Commision proposals addressing the financing of the Common Agrigcultural Policy (CAP). France insisted on a political agreement that would clarify the roe of the commission and majority voting if it were to participate again. This crisis was resolved in the Luxembourg Compromise in January 1966.
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
A fund that aims to strengthen economic and social cohesion in the EU by correcting imbalances between its regions. The ERDF finances: direct aid to investments in companies (in particular small and medium-sized enterprises, or SMEs) to reate sustainable jobs; infrastructures linked notably to research innovation, telecommunications, environment, energy, and transport; financial instrument, and to foster cooperation between town and regional policy – namely, convergency, regional competitiveness andemployment, and European territorial Cooperation.
European Social Fund (ESF)
Set up in 1957, a fund that aims to sustain and improve mobility in the European labour market through education and requalification initiatives for workers in areas experiencing industrial decline.
Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM)
The main element of the European monetary system, a mechanism that aimed to create a zone of monetary stability within Western Europe.
Legitimacy
The extent of which a regime’s procedures for making and enforcing laws are acceptable to all of its subjects; the right to rule. See input legitimacy; output legitimacy.
Single European Act (SEA)
It came into force in he first of the large scle treaty revisions, signed in and seved as a vehicle for the single market programme.
Intergovernmental Conference (IGC)
A structured negotiation among the EU’s member states, which usualy leads to treaty revisions. See simplified revision procedure.
Agenda 2000
An influential action programme adopted by the Comission on 15 July 1987, which set out the reforms needed for the EU to englarge in 2004 and in 2007.
European Convention
See Convention on the Future of Europe.
Cohesion
A principle that favours the reduction of regional and social disparities across the EU.
Harmonized
The act of setting common European standards from which states are unable to deviate (either upwards or downwards).
Cooperation Procedure
A legislative procedure introduced in the Single European Act (Article 252, ex 198cEC), which allowed the European Parliament a second reading of draft legislation. Since Amesterdam, ittt had been hardly used, because most policies originally falling under cooperation came under the then co-decision procedure (now ordinary legislative procedure, or OLP); the Lisbon Treaty repealed the cooperation procedure.
Assent
Introduced by the Single European Act of 1986, the assent procedure requires the EU Council to obrain the European Parliament’s approval before certain important decisions are taken. The assent principle is based on a single reading. Parliament may accept or reject a proposal, but cannot amend it. If Parliament does not give assent, the act in question cannot be adopted. This procedure applies mainly to the accession of new member states, association agreements, and other fundamental agreements with third countries.
Association Agreement
…An agreement between the EU and a third country that creates a framework for cooperation in several policy fields such as trade, socio-economic issues, and security, as well as the creation of joint institutional structures.
Accession
…The process of joining the EU.
Powers
The ability to control outcomes; the capacity of A to force B to do something A’s interest.
Amending Treaty
See reform treaty
Ratification
Formal approval. In the EU context, it implies approval of Treaty revisions by national parliaments and sometimes also by popular referendum.
Committee of the Regions (CoR)
A Commmittee set up by the Maastricht Treaty as an advisory body composed of nominated representatives of Europe’s regional and local authorities, to ensure that regional and local identities and interests are respected within the EU.
Supranationalism
An approach to the study of the EU that emphasizes the autonomy of the European institutions and the importance of common Euroepan policies.
Intergovernmentalism
A theory of European integration that privileges the role of states. When conceptualization decision-making mechanisms in the context of the EU, this refers to decisions being made by the member states only, without involvement of the supranational institutions.
Convergence Criteria
The rules that member states have to meet before they can join economic and monetary union (EMU) in 1999.
Social Chapter
Agreed at Maastricht, the Social Chapter establishes minimum social conditions within the EU.
Treaty base
The treaty provision that underpins a particular piece of European legislation.
a la carte
A non-uniform method of integration that would allow member states to select policies as if from a menu.
Yugoslavia
A country in the Western Balkans that existed during most of the 20th century. In 1963, it was renamed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which includes 6 republics-namely, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, SR Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia, and Serbia-and two autonomous provinces (Vojodina and Kosovo). After the 1991 Balkan Wars, which followed the secession of most of the country’s constituent entities, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia existed until 2003, when it was renamed Serbia and Montenegro. On the basis of a referendum help on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
Core Europe
The idea that a small group of countries able and willing to enter into closer cooperation with one another might leave behind the less enthusiastically integrationist members of the EU.
Multi-Speed
A characteristic of differentiated integration whereby common objectives are pursued by a group of member states able and willing to advance further than others in the integration process.
Reflection Group
A group established prior to an intergovernmental conference (IGC) to prepare preliminary papers on relevant issues.
Flexibility
One of the mechanisms, first introduced in the Amsterdam Treaty, which allows the EU to pursue differentiated integration. The Lisbon Treaty incorporates changes to its application under the enhanced cooperation procedure.
Closer Cooperation
See enhanced cooperation procedure.
Communitarization
The shift of policy activity from the intergovernmental pillars to the community pillar.
EU Citizenship
A staus conferred directly on every EU citizen under the Treaty on the Functtioning of the European Union (TFEU)-that is, any person who holds the nationality of an EU country is automatically also an EU citizen. EU citizenship is additional to, and does not replace, national citizenship
Constructive Abstention
A provision that allows member states to abstain in the Council on Common Foreign and Security Policy (CCFSP) decisions, without blocking a unanimous agreement.
Accession Treaties
An international agreement concluded between EU member states and the acceding country. It defines the accession conditions of the new member states, and the subsequent adaptions and adjustments of the EU tTretay
Dual Majority
A voting system that takes into consideration the number of votes and population necessary to achieve a majority. The Treaty of Lisbon simplifies the system with a view to improving its efficiency. It abolishes the weighting of votes and establishes a dual majority system for adopting decisions. Thus a qualified majority is achieved if it covers at least 55% of member states representing at least 65% of the population.The Treaty of Lisbon also provides for a blocking minority composed of at least 4 member states representing over 35% of the EU population. This new system of Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) will apply with effect from 1 NOV 2014. However, until 31 March 2017, any member states may request, on a case-by-case basis, that a decision is taken in accordance with the rules in force before 1 Nov 2014 (that is, in accordance with the qualified majority, as defined by the Treaty of Nice)
Yellow Card
If a draft legislative act’s compliance with the subsidiarity principle is contested by a third of the votes allocated to national parliaments (the yellow card), the Commission has to review the proposal and decide to maintain, amend, or withdraw the act, also motivating its decision. This threshold is a quarter in the case of a draft submitted on the basis of Article 76 TFEU on the Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice (AFSJ).
Rapid Reaction Force
A transnational military force managed by the EU.
Eurosceptics
Someone who is opposed to European integration itself, or is skeptical about the EU and its aims.
finalitei Politique
The EU’s final constitutional settlement
Consolidated Treaties
A treaty that incorporates all of the amendments made since the original Treaty of Rome.
Sovereignty
The supremacy of a state, which is not subject to any higher authority; supreme, unrestricted power (of a state).
Constitutionalization
The formalization of the rules of the game, which, in an Eu context, might involve a process whereby the treaties become over time-dejure or only de facto-a consitutuion.
Reform Treaty
A treaty that amends the provisions of existing EU treaties. The difference between a reform treaty (operating within the framework of existing treaties) and a constitution (which would consolidate all of the rules governing the Eu and give rise to a new set of legal principles) shaped the debates over the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty and member states’ justification not to hold referenda.
European Stability Mechanism (ESM)
A permanent rescue funding programme to succeed the temporary European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) and European Financial Stabilization Mechanism. it is foreseen that the new European Stability Mechanism (ESM) will enter into force on 1 July 2013, following an amendment to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and the signing of an ESM Treaty by the euro area countries.
Treaty on Stability, Coordination, and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union
Agreed on 30 January 2012 by the informal European COuncil, the only really substantive binding provision of this treaty is that the member states undertake to adopt, at the national level, rules that limit their structural deficit to % of GDP. This should be done preferably at the constitutional level.
Charter of Fundamental Rights
The first formal EU document to combine and declare all of the values and fundamental rights (economic and social, as well as civil and political) to which EU citizens should be entitled. The text of the Charter does not establish new rights, but assembles existing rights that were previously scattered over a range of international sources. It was drafted through a convention and proclaimed at the 2000 Nice European Council. It became binding in December 2009 when the Lisbon Treaty entered into force.
Convention on the Future of Europe
A body set up in 2002 to debate alternative models and visions of the EU, and to prepare a draft constitution that could be used as the basis of discussion in the intergovernmental conference of 2004.
Candidate Countries
Countries that have applied for membership of the EU and whose applications have been accepted by the European Council
Praesidium
…In the contect of the 2002 Convention on the Future of Europe, the Praesidium was the sterring group responsible for setting the Convention’s agenda and overseeing its progress.
Transparency
Used in the EU to refer to the extent of openness within the EU.
Original Six
The original signatories of the Treaty of Rome-Namely, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
Accountability
The requirement for representatives to answer the represented on how they have performed their duties and powers, and for them to act upon criticisms and accept responsibility for failutre,, incompetence, or deceit.
Directives
A legislative instrument that lays down certain end results that must be achieved in every member state. National authorities have to adapt their laws to meet these goals, but are free to decide how to do so. Directives may concern one or more member staes, or all of them.
Exclusive Competences
One of the specific areas in which only the EU is able to legislate and adopt legally binding acts. The member states may intervene in the areas concerned only if empowere to do so by the Union or in order to implement Union acts.
Customs Union
An economic association of states based on an agreement to eliminate tariffs and other obstacles to trade, and which also includes a common trade policy vis-à-vis third countries, usually by establishing a common external tariff on goods imported into the union.
Globalization
A contested concept that usually refers to the growing economic interdependence of states and non-state actors worldwide.Often associated with increased capital mobility and the spread of neoliberal ideas, it implies that market authority is enhanced at the cost of formal political authority.
Bolkerstein Direvtive
Directive 2006/123/EC on Services in the Internal Market
Friends of the Constitution
In January 2007, the Spanish and Luxembourg governments convened a ministerial-level meeting of member states that had ratified the Constitution to discuss how the EU might proceed on the basis of the 2004 Constitution.
Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)
The Lisbon Treaty amends the EU’s two core treaties, the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty establishing the Euroepan Community (TEC), renaming the latter as the TFEU. The TEU organizes the functioning of the Union and determines the areas of, delimination of, and arrangements for exercising its competences.
Permanent Structured Cooperation
According to Article 42 TEU, the cooperation that must be established within the Union framework by those member states with military capabilities that fufil higher criteria and which have made more binding commitments to one another in this area.
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
An international treaty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe. Drafted in 1950 by the then newly formed Council of Europe, the Convention and new members are expected to ratify the Convention at the earliest opportunity. The convention established the European Court of Human rights (ECHR).
Shared Competences
A specific area in which the member states and the EU have powers to legislate and adopt legalliy binding acts. The member states exercise their powers in so far as the Union has not exercised, or has decided to stop exercising, its competence. most of the EU’s competence fall into this category.
Community Method
The use of the established process of decision-making, which involves a Commission legislative initiative being agreed by the Council. And now usually the European Parliament. It also implies that the European Court of Justice will have jurisdiction over any decision taken.
Secession
The act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or political entity.
Emergency Brakes
See the brake clasue
Ioannina Compromise
A negotiated compromise that takes its name from an informal meeting of foreign ministers in the Greek city of Ioannia of 29 March 1994. The resulting compromise lays down that if members of the Council representing between 23 votes (the old blocking minority threshold) and 26 votes (the new threshold) express their intention of opposing the taking of a decision by the Council by qualified majority, the Council will do all within its power, within a reasonable space of time, to reach a satisfactory solution that can be adopted by at least 68 votes out of 87. The Lisbon Treaty (Article 16 TEU) introduces a new definition of the rule of qualified majority that shall apply from 1 Nov 2014 onwards.
High Representative
The Amsterdam Treaty created the post of High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy. The Lisbon Treaty renames the position the High Represetative of the Union forForeign Affairs and Security Policy and extends his or her responsibilities by assigning the High Representatives the functions of Council presidency in matters of foreign affairs, of Commissioner responsible for External Relations, and of High Representatives for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The High Representative is one of the five vice-presidents of the European Commission and resides over the foreign affairsl Council (FAC)
Efficiency
The ratio of output to input of any system.
Ratification Crisis
1992. The crisis provoked by the Danish no vote in their 1992 referendum on the Maastricht Treaty.
Simplified Revision Procedures
The traty of Lisbon creates a simplified procedure for the amendment of policies and internal actions of the EU. THe government of any member state, the Commission, or the European parliament can submit proposals for amendments to the European Council. The European Council then adopts a decision alying down the amendments made to the treaties. The Euroepan Council acts by unanimity after consulting the Commission, the Parliament, and the European Central Bank (ECB) if the amendment concerns monetary matters. New provisions of the treaties enter into force only after they have been ratified by all member states pursuant to their respective constitutional requirements. This procedure avoids the convening of a convention and an IGC. However, the competences of the EU may not be extended by means of a simpliefied revision procedure.
Treaty Establishing the European Stability Mechanism (TESM)
A treaty signed by euro area member states on 2 February 2012. The Euroepan Stability Mechanism (ESM) is constituted as an international financial institution based in Luxembourg. Its purpose is to provide financial assistance to euro area member states experiencing or being threatened by severe financing problems.
Fiscal Compact
See Treaty on Stability, Cordination, and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union.
Supranational Institutions
An institution in the EU stem of governance to which the member states have delegated sovereignty, such as the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Euroepan Central Bank (ECB), or the courts of the Euroepan Union.
Non-State Actors
Usually, any actor that is not a national government; often refers to transnational ators, such as interest groups (rather than to international organization).
Spillover
A mechanism identified by neo-functionalist theorists who claimed that sectoral integration in one area would have knock-on effects in others and would spill over, thereby increasing the scope of European integration.
Grand Theory
A theory that tries to explain the entirety of a political process, such as European integration.
Elitist
A characteristic describing the tendency of neo-functionalists to see European integration as driven by functional and technocratic needs. Although not apolitical, it sees little role for democratic and accountable governance.
Benign Elitism
The neo-functionalist characteristic tendency to assume the tacit support of the European people upon which experts and executives rely when pushing for further European Integration.
Permissive Consensus
The political context that allowed elites in the post-1945 period to engage in European integration, without involving Europe’s citizen’s.
New Approaches
A novel approach to regulating internal market rules, as established in the Commission’s White Paper on Completing the Internal Market (1985) in which legislative acts would set out only the main objectives and detailed rules would be adopted through private standardization bodies.
Realist
A rationalist theory of international relations.
Zero-sum game
A game played (by states) in which the victory of one group implies the loss another.
Functional Spillover
The knock-on effect of integration in one sector, which is said by neo-functionalists to provoke integration in neighbouring sectors.
Polity
A politically organized society.
Spillback
A mechanism indentified by neo-functionalist theorist. According to Schmitter, spillback occurs in regional integration when, in response to tensions, actors withdraw from their original objectives, downgrading their commitment to mutal cooperation.
Constructivism
A theoretical approach that claims that politics is affected as much by ideas as by power. It argues that the fundamental stuctures of political life are social rather than material.
Liberal Intergovernmentalism
Andrew Moravcsik’s update on classical Intergovernmentalism.
Partial Theory
A theory purports to address or explain an aspect of a specific political phenomenon.
Social Spillover
A recent neo-functionalist concept that divorces social from political spillover in order to explain the learning and socialization processes that help to drive the Euroepan integration process.
Elite Socialization
Closely related to the neo-functionalist idea of poitical spillover, this theory posits that European integration promotes shifts of loyalty among civil servants and other elite actors; thus members of the European Parliament (MEPs) will tend to become more European in their outlook, although this may be disputed empirically.
Middle Range Theories
A theory that aims to explain only part of a political process and which does not have totalizing ambitions.
Integration Theory
Sometimes used generally as a shorthand for all theoretical and conceptual approaches that discuss European integration; otherwise it refers more specifically to supranational (especially neo-functionalist) theories of European integration.
State-centrism
A conceptual approach to understanding European integration that gives primacy to the role of state actors within the process.
Neo-realist
An international relations theory, associated with the work of Kenneth Waltz, which claims that the international state system is anarchic and that, as such, state uncertainty is a given. States will want to maintain their independence and survival will be their primary objective, but they may nonetheless engage in European integration if this serves their ends.
institutionalist
See new institutionalism
Delegation
The handing over of powers by a legitimate political institution to a body that then acts on its behlf.
National Sovereignty
The doctorine that sovereignty belongs to and derives from the nation, an abstract entity normally linked to a physical territory, and its past, present, and future citizens.
European Political Cooperation (EPC)
A form of foreign policy cooperation prior to Maastricht, set up after 1970 and formalized by the Single European Act.
Confederation
A political model that involves a loose grouping of states, characterized by the fact that the centre has fewer powers than the states or regions.
Policy Style
A set of characteristics that describe different ways of policy-making (for example, in particular sector or across a particular country.
Neoliberalism
An economic school that advocates the reduction of state influence in the market, the liberalization of the economy, the privatization of stae-owned firms, and the tight control of money supply, and which supports a general trend towards deregulation.
Critical Juncture
A period of institutional flux within the historical institutionalist model of institutional development. this literature assumes a dual model characterized by relatively long periods of path-dependent institutional stability and reproduction that are punctuated occasionally by brief phases of institutional flux (the critical junctures), during which more dramatic change is possible. Junctures are critical because they place institutional arrangements on paths or trajectories that are then very difficult to alter.
Pluralistic
A general approach that implies that organized groups play an important role in the political process.
Geo-Political
A characteristic referring to the relationship between geography, politics, and international relations.
Common Market
An economic agreement that extends cooperation beyond a customs union, to provide for the free movement of goods, services, capital, and labour.
Positive-sum outcomes
An outcome that constitutes more than the sum of its parts. It is often talked of in EU terms as an upgrading of the common interest.
Conciliation
The third stage of the ordinary legislative procedure (OLP), at which point an equal number of representatives of the Parliament and Council get together to try to work out an agreement acceptable to all. The conciliation procedure always applies if the EU Council does not approve all of the amendments of the European Parliament adopted at its second reading.
Multilevel Governance
An approach to the study of EU politics that emphasizes the interaction of the many different actors who influence European policy outcomes.
Governance Turn
The shift in interest in EU studies that included the increased application of theories of governance, comparative politics, and public policy, as well as the study of the EU as a political system in its own right.
Regulatory State
The expansion in the use of rule-making, monitoring. and enforcement techniques and institutions by the state, and a parallel change in the way in which its positive functions in society are being carried out.
Statehood
The condition of being a state.
Dependent Variable
The object of study; the phenomenon that one is trying to explain.
Redistributive
The characteristic of a policy that transfers wealth from one group to another.
Policy Networks
A set of actors who are linked by relatively stable relationships of a non-hierarchial and interdependent nature. These actors share common interests with regard to a policy and exchange resources to pursue these shared interests, acknowledging that cooperation is the best way in which to achieve common goals.
Supranational Governance
A theory of Euroepan integration proposed by Wayne Sandholtz and Alec Stone Sweet, which draws on neo-functionalism and provides an alternative approach to Moravcsik’s liveral Intergovernmentalism.
non-majoritarian
A governmental entity that possesses and exercises specialized public authority, separate from that of other institutions, but is neither directly elected by the people nor directly managed by elected officials.
stakeholders
A person, group, organization, member, or system who affects or can be affected by an organization’s actions.
n=1 problem
The situation in which the object under scholarly scrutiny cannot be compared to toher cases. This renders generalization beyond the case impossible (because there are no other instances of what is being studied).
representation
The principle by which delegates are chosen to act for a particular constituency (group of electors).
Structural Funds
A financial instrument aimed at fostering economic and social cohesion in the EU by part-financing regional and horizontaloperations in the member states. There are four types of Structural Fund: the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF); the European Social Fund (ESF); the Euroepan Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) Guidance section; and the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG).
Framing
An important component of how the media can affect public opinion. A frame is an emphasis in salience of certain aspects of a topic.
Independent Variables
A factor contributing to an explanation of a phenomenon (a dependent variable).
Rationalist
A theory that assumes that individuals (or state) are able to rank options in order of preference and to choose the best available preference.
Agenda-Setting
The process by which an issue or problem emerges onto the political scene and is framed for subsequent debate.
Interventionist
the concept that governments involve themselves in the regulation of markets, through policy, rather than leave markets to regulate themselves.
dirigiste
See interventionist
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The market value of alofficially recognized final goods and services produced within a country in a given period.
Mutual Recognition
The principle that an economic product sod in one member state should not be prohibited from sale anywhere in the EU. This was upheld int he famous Cassis de Dijon (1979) case brought to the European Court of Justice. Exceptions can be made in cases of public health and safety, however.
Regulatory Competition
A situation in which a country tries to offer a regulatory enviorment that will attract business from abroad. This may involve deregulation.
Majoritarian
Characterized by the application of majority rule; the principle that the majority should be allowed to rule the minority.
Central Banks
A national bank that provides services for the county’s government and commericial banking system. It manages public debt, controls the money supply, and regulates the monetary and credit system.
Interest Rates
The rate of return on savings, or the rate paid on borrowings.
Money Supply
The stock of liquid assets in an economy that can be freely exchanged for goods and services.
Negative Integration
A form of integration that involves the removal of barriers between the member states.
Non-tariff barriers
See barrier to trade.
Positive Integration
A form of integration that involves the contruction of policies and or institutions.
Comitology
THe procedure under which the European Commission executes its implementing powers delegated to it by the legislative branch-that is, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (permanent representatives) and is chaired by the member state that holds the EU Council presidency.
Judicial Review
The right of a court to review a law or other act for constitutionality or its violation of some fundamental principle.
Benchmark
One of the mechanisms of the open method of coordination (OMC) that allows for the comparison and adjustment of the policies of member states on the basis of common objectives.
Co-decision
see OLP or Ordinary Legislative Procedure.
Sovereign debt Crisis
A crisis that arises when national governmetns are unable to guarantee repayment of debt that they have issued-even though sovereign debt is theoretically considered to be risk-free, because the government can employ different measures to guarantee repayment, by increasing taxes or printing money.
Epistemic Community
A network of knowledge based experts or groups with an authoritative claim to policy-relevant knowledge within the domain of their expertise.
New modes of Governance (NMGs)
In contrast to the traditional Community method, which relies on the proposal, adoption, and implementation of legislation by the EU’s main institutions, the policy goals of an NMG are achieved through a novel mechanism that involves eplicit, but not legally binding, commitments from the member states. In a formalized process, each government commits itself to certain goals in areas such as education policy, innovation, or labour market reform. The European Commission is involved both in the design stage of specific policies and in a monitoring function overseeing subsequent implantation.
Consultation
A special legislative procedure, under Article 289 TFEU, whereby the European Parliament is asked for its opinion on proposed legislation before the Council adopts it. The Parliament may approve or reject a legislative proposal, or propose amendments to it. The Council is not legally obliged to take account of Parliament’s opinion, in line with the case law of the European Court of Justice, it must not take a decision without having received it.
Stability and Growth Pact (SGP)
An agreement of the EU member states concerning conduct over their fiscal policy, which aimed to ensure that the constraints on member states prior to the introduction of the single currency would continue after conomic and monetary union (EMU) was in place.
Public Debt
The amount of money owed by the state.
European Semester
A cycle of economic policy coordination, this is an additional instrument for the EU’s preventive surveillance of the economic and fiscal policies of its member states. The main new aspect is that the enforcement of economic policy coordination is now extended right through to the budgetary process of every member state. The European semester is based on a coordination process lasting several months, with fixed calendar deadlines.
Conditionality
(EU enlargement) The principle that applicant states must meet certain conditions before they can become EU member states; (EU external relations) provisons that make the granting of EU aid conditional on good governance, observance of human rights, and the introduction of market economics.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
An international organization that oversees the global trade in goods and services.
Committee of Permanent Representatives (Coreper)
Committee responsible for preparing the work of the Council of the European Union. It consists of the member states ambassadors to the European Union (permanent representatives) and is chaired by the member state that holds the EU Council presidency.
Collegiality
A principle that implies that decisions taken by one are the collective responsibility of all.
Primus inter pares
A latin expression meaning first amongst equals.
Primus super pares
A latin expression that means first above equals.
Eurostat
Established in 1953, the statistical office of the European Union. It is task is to provide the EU with statistics at the European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions.
Proportionality
A principle that implies that the means should not exceed the ends; applies to decision-making and the legislative process.
European External Action Service (EEAS)
A body formed to assist the HIgh Representative, compising staff from the European Commission, the General Secretariat of the Council (GSC), and the diplomatic services of EU member states.
Enhanced Cooperation
Initally established by the Amsterdam Treaty as closer cooperation and renamed enhanced cooperation, a procedure that allows groups of members states that wish to integrate further than provide for in the treaties to do so, with the exception of areas of exclusive Union competence. The commission will assess the request and it may submit a proposal to the Council in this respect. If the Commission decides not to present a proposal, it will explain it reasons to the member states concerned.
Permanent Representation
The diplomatic delegation of any member state vis-à-vis the EU in Brussels.
Engrenage
The enmeshing of EU elites, which may arise out of a process of socialization in Brussels.
Package Deals
The exchange of loss in some issues for benefits in others, resulting in mutual overall gain between actors with different interests. EU decision-making presents legislators with multiple issues for consideration, and their repeated interactions in the EU legislative process create opportunities for package deals and exchange of supporting.
Euro Summit
Under the Fiscal Compact signed in March 2010, it was agreed that the heads of state or government would meet informally at least twice a year to discuss issues related to economic and monetary union (EMU) and to provide strategic orientations for the conduct of economic policies. euro summits, it was further agreed, would be chaired by a president, who would be elected by simple majority for a two-and-a-half year term of office. THe new Euro summits will regin supreme over the Eurogroup.
pillar
Prior to the Treaty of Lisbon, the structure of the European Union was akin to ta Greek temple consisting of 3 pillars-namely Pillar 1, Pillar 2, and Pillar 3. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009, the pillars disappeared. Pilalr 1 compromised the original communities and was typically supranational. Pillar 2 compromised intergovernmental cooperation in foreign and security policy. Pillar 3 comprised intergovernmental cooperation in police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (PJCCM).
Joint Actions
Coordinated action by member states to commit resources for an agreed (foreign policy) objective.
Parity
Equality in amount, status, or character.
Transaction Costs
The costs related to the exchange of money.
Variable Geometry
An image of the Euroepan Union that forsees the breakdown of a unified form of cooperation, and the introduction of a pick and choose approach to further integration.
Eurosclerosis
A word used to characterized the period of EC history between 1966 and the early 1980’s, during which the process of integration appeared to have slowed down and the common market objective was no implemented.
Constitutional Convention
See Convention on the Future of Europe
Consensually
A type of decision-making that involves the agreement of all, even where this is not formally a requirement.
Differentiated Integration
See differentiation

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