The Developing Person Through the Life Span

Cohort
A group of people who were born at about the same time and thus move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts.
Correlation
A number indicating the degree of relationship between two variables, expressed in terms of the likelihood that one variable will (or does not). A correlation is not an indication that one variable causes the other, only that the two variables are related to the indicated degree.
Culture
– Refer to the patterns of behavior that are passed from one generation to the next and that serve as the resources for the current life of a social group. The customary beliefs, social forms and material traits of a racial, religious or social group.
Dependent Variable
In an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation and experimenter adds. In other words, the dependent variable depends on the independent variable.
Domains of Human Development
Is divided into three domains all three domains interact as part of the dynamic systems that make up a person:
Biosocial Development – Includes all the growth and change that occurs in a person’s body, genetic, nutritional and health motor skills from grasping rattle to driving a car. (Called biosocial rather than physical or biological).

Cognitive Development – Mental processes a person uses to obtain knowledge, think about environment encompasses perception, imagination, judgment, memory and language think, decide and learn, education.

Psychosocial Development -Development of emotions, temperament, and social skills, family friends, community.

Ethnic Group
People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture and religion.
Experiment
– A research method in which the researcher tries to determine the cause- and-effect relationship between two variables by manipulating one variable (called the independent variable) and the observing and recording the resulting changes in the other variable (called the independent variable).
Hypothesis
A specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted.
. Independent variable
In a experiment, the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable. (Also call experimental variable).
Scientific Observation
A method of testing hypotheses by unobtrusively watching and recording participants’ behavior in a systematic and objective manner, either in a laboratory or in a natural setting.
Study of Human Development
– The science that seeks to understand how and why people change or remain the same over time. Developmentalists Study people of all ages and circumstances.
Cognitive Theory
A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs and behaviors.
Developmental Theory
A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made.
Emphasis of Epigenetic Theory
An emergent theory of development that considers bother the genetic origins of behavior (within each person and within each species) and the direct, systematic, influence that environmental forces have or time on genes.
Psychoanalytic Theory
A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
Dominance and Recessiveness
The interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one allele (the dominant gene). More than that of the other (the recessive gene).
Fragile – X Syndrome
A genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome seems to be attached to rest of it by a very thin string of molecules. The actual cause is too many repetitions of a particular part of a gene’s code.
Genetic Counseling
Consultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, including harmful conditions that they might pass along to any children they may conceive.
Genome
The full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species.
Genotype
An organism’s entire genetic in heritance, or genetic potential.
. Phenotype
The observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits.
. X-Linked Traits
Referring to a gene carried on the x chromosome. If a boy inherits an x-linked recessive trait from his mother, he expresses that trait, since the Y from his father has no counteracting gene. Girls are more likely to be carriers of X-Linked traits but are less likely to express them.
Apgar Scale
A quick assessment of a new born’s body functioning. The baby’s color heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone, and respiratory effort are given a score of 0, 1, or 2 twice – at one minute and five minutes after birth – and the total of all the scores is compared with the ideal score of 10.
Blastocyst
A cell mass that develops from the zygote in the first few days after conception, during the germinal period, and forms a hollow sphere in preparation for implantation.
Critical Period
In prenatal development, the time when a particular organ or other body part of the embryo or fetus is most susceptible to damage by teratogens. Also, a time when a certain development must happen if it is ever to happen. For example, the embryonic period is critical for the development of arms and legs
Implantation
The process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop.
LBW
Low Birth Weight, A body weight at birth of less than 5-1/2 pounds (2,5..grams).
. Teratogen
Agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs, and chemicals, taht can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death.
VLBW
Very Low Birth Weight, A body weight at birth of less than 3 pounds, 5 ounces (1,500grams).
(ELBW)
Extremely Low Birth Weight, A body weight at birth of less than 2 pounds, 3 ounces (990 grams).