The Chemistry of Matter Flashcard

Chemistry
Is the scientific study of matter, physical and chemical changes affecting matter and the energy changes that accompany those processes.
Chemists
Scientists who study matter, its properties and changes.
Biochemistry
Is the study of chemical reactions, such as growth, reproduction and respiration, that occur within a living organism.
Organic Chemistry
Deals with all matter that is now living or was alive at one time. This is a study of matter containing carbon, which is present in all plants and animals.
Inorganic Chemistry
Deals with matter that was never living and does not contain carbon.
Matter
Is anything that occupies space.
Solids
Matter with definite weight, volume and shape. EX: Skin
Liquids
Matter with definite weight and volume, but no shape. EX: Lotions
Gases
Matter with definite weight, but indefinite volume and shape. EX: Air
Physical Change
Is a change in the physical form of a substance without creating a new substance possessing a distinct material composition.
Chemical Change
Is a change in a substance that creates a new substance with different material characteristics from those of the original substance.
Sublimation
Is the process of a solid or gas changing states without becoming a liquid.
Energy
Is the ability to do work to accomplish some change.
Elements
Are basic units of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by any chemical reaction. Are referred to as pure substances. EX: Hydrogen, Oxygen
Periodic Law
The unifying concept used to organize elements and their similarities.
Atomic Number
The number shown in the periodic table with each element is the elements ___ and indicates how many protons are in a single atom of the element.
(COHNS) Carbon C, Oxygen O, Hydrogen H, NItrogen N, Sulphur S
Components of major biologican molecules
Produce electrolytes responsible for fluid balance and nerve signal transmission
Potassium K, Sodium Na, Chlorine Cl
Calcium Ca, Magnesium Mg
Bones, nerve function
Zinc Zn, Stronium Sr, Iron Fe, Copper Cu, Cobalt Co, Manganese Mn
Essential trace metals in human metabolism
Cadmium Cd, Mercury Hg, Lead Pb
Inhalation or ingestion of these heavy metals can produce toxic effects.
Atoms
Are the smallest complete unit of an element. Made up of three particles, Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
Protons
Have a positive electrical charge (+) and identify the atom as, example, a hydrogen atom or an oxygen atom.
Neutrons
Have no electrical charge. They are “neutrally charged”. ___ & protons together determine the molecular weight (MW) of each element.
Electrons
Have a negative electrical charge (-). Under certain circumstances, ______ enable atoms to unite with other atoms to form bonds.
Nucleus
Protons and neutrons are packed together tightly to form a dense core, at the center of the atom.
Free Electron
Is the name given to an electron in the outermost orbit that is easily moved from its orbit. If another atom has a shortage of electrons, ____ will attempt to move to the other atom.
Molecule
Is the smallest particle of a compound that has all the chemical properties of that compound. When unstable atoms combine chemically by sharing electrons, ___ are formed.
Compounds
Created by chemically uniting two different elements.
Chemical Bonds
Formation of molecules that hold atoms together in compounds.
Three Major Biochemical Compound Groups
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Basic materials the body uses help the body construct and renew itself.
Enzymes
Are materials that dissolve and break down large molecules into smaller ones.
Amino Acids
Are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen that join together in chains to form proteins. There are 22 common amino acids, each with its own distinct chemical structure.
Peptide Bond
Is a bond uniting two amino acid groups.
Polypeptide Chain
Is thousands of amino acids connected lengthwise to form a chain.
Monomers
Basic building-block molecules
Polymers
Groups of monomers that bond together
Carbohydrates
Monomers & Polymers found in the body; are used by the body to store energy and play a key role in metabolism
Saccharide
A simple unit of a carbohydrate
Monosaccharide
A single saccharide
Disaccharides
Are two saccharides linked together.
Polysachharides
Many saccharides linked together
Lipids
Are made up of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) and are not formed by the linkage of basic molecule units like proteins and polysaccharides.

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