The Challenges Of The Hispanic Americans Sociology Essay Essay
Latino Americans ( besides known as Latinos/Latinas ) are persons whose ascendants came from Latin American states, such as Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and other South and Cardinal American states, such as Colombia, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Comas-Diaz ( 2001 ) references Latino Americans are one of the fastest turning cultural minority groups in the United States. Harmonizing to the 2000 U.S. Census, Latino Americans are now the largest cultural minority group in the United States, stand foring a sum of 35,305,818 Americans or 12.5 % of the entire population. Latino Americans represent a really heterogenous group of people in footings of race, ethnicity, part, and socioeconomic position. As a group, nevertheless, Latino Americans tend to be younger than other Americans ( average age is 26 old ages ) , and the bulk are located in metropolitan countries. Although Latino Americans live throughout the United States, the bulk are concentrated in a figure of parts and provinces, including the Southwest ( e.g. , California, Arizona ) , Texas, Florida, Illinois, and the Northeast ( e.g. , New York, New Jersey ) . For a assortment of grounds, Latino Americans tend to be over represented in the countries of poorness and unemployment and underrepresented in the countries of instruction and high income ( Comas-Diaz, 2001 ) .
A Historical Background of the Minority Group
Latino Americans have lived in the part that is now the United States for more than 500 old ages. The ascendants of today ‘s Latino Americans were present when Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World on the island of Hispaniola, which today comprises Haiti and the Dominican Republic. From the start, European colonists and autochthonal people intermarried, giving birth to the mestizo civilization that is found among most Latino American cultural groups ( Comas-Diaz, 2001 ) . The European conquering involved oppressive forces of captivity, persecution, spiritual transition, and the overall disempowerment of the autochthonal people of the Americas by the conquistadores. Part of the procedure involved the extended devastation and extinction of several autochthonal groups, such as the Taino Indians of Puerto Rico and the Dominican Island and many native folks and states in what is today the sou’-west United States. The captivity of people of African descent was besides a portion of this procedure and led to the intermingling of African civilizations with European and autochthonal groups ; these groups became known as criollos and mulattos.
During the early 1800s, many Latin American states fought for and won independency from their European colonisers, and the freshly established states created constitutional democracies. However, during this same period, the United States began to pattern a policy of enlargement known as Manifest Destiny, annexing parts of Florida, Texas, and the Southwest. At times, U.S. expansionist policies led to overt belligerencies and warfare with the new Latin American democracies. As a consequence of these events, many Latino Americans were forcibly reclassified as aa‚¬A“aliensaa‚¬A? ( Santiago, et Al, 2002 ) in their ain land ( such as Mexican Americans in 1848 ) or recolonized as foreigners in U.S. districts ( Puerto Ricans in 1898, although they were subsequently made citizens in 1917 ) . Migration and in-migration continue to play a major function today among Latino Americans ; many came to the United States for a assortment of grounds, including political refuge, better occupations, and instruction. Although the bulk of Latino Americans are U.S. occupants, about one-half are immigrants ( Santiago, et Al, 2002 ) .
Discussion of the Ethnic Groups, Culture, Religion & A ; Tradition
Latino Americans are a really heterogenous group, coming from several different states, though chiefly from Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. A smaller per centum come from other South and Cardinal American states, such as Colombia, Costa Rica, and Panama and from the Caribbean, including the Dominican Republic.
Despite the heterogenous nature of both their history and civilization, Latino Americans portion a figure of cultural values. The most of import value is familismo, the belief in keeping close connexions with household ( Santiago, et Al, 2002 ) . Latino Americans display a willingness to give at the single degree in service to the household, and there is a shared sense of duty within Latino American households that is marked by specific function duties for the female parent, male parent, boy, girl, and abuelo/abuela ( grandparents ) . Even Latino American households who have lived in the United States for several coevalss and go acculturated into U.S. society exhibit reasonably strong values of familismo. Though the imposts environing familismo may hold changed ( e.g. , immature people may day of the month without the presence of an older relation ) , new imposts have arisen that continue to show this nucleus value ( e.g. , siblings may populate together or shut to each other while go toing college off from place and household ) .
As a consequence of the increased handiness of occupations and instruction to all members of the household, along with repeating migratory rhythms, alterations can be seen in the construction of Latino American households, which have traditionally been headed by the male parent. Examples of these newer household constructions include ( 1 ) singleparent familias, who may confront issues of poorness ; ( 2 ) bicultural familias who cross coevalss ; and ( 3 ) immigrant familias, who may necessitate to cover with acculturational emphasis and injury ( Gonzalez, 2000 ) .
Latino Americans typically have strong extended household webs, and they are frequently in close contact with uncles and aunts ( tios/tias ) , cousins, and non-blood relations, such as godparents ( padrinos or compadres/comadres ) . Godparents may function as replacement parents at times, and they are expected to be a portion of major household activities.
Personalismo refers to the value of positive societal accomplishments and relationships, which is considered an built-in portion of the familistic model of Latino Americans ( Gonzalez, 2000 ) . It is common to hold close relationships with most Latino American household members, friends, and other dealingss that are marked by heat, wit, and friendliness. Agencies that serve big Latino/a populations should be cognizant of this indispensable nucleus value, doing certain that forces are well-trained to recognize clients in a personal mode ( usage of a personal names, brief little talk ) .
Spirituality is another nucleus value that is cardinal to Latino Americans. Although most Latinos/as follow the Roman Catholic faith, it is of import to understand that regardless of their faith, religious beliefs are likely to rule the worldview of Latino Americans. An branch of these strong spiritual beliefs is fatalismo, the belief that what is fated to go on will happen despite persons ‘ ( Gonzalez, 2000 ) attempts, and events must merely be endured. Part of the pattern of spiritualty among Latino Americans is the worship of certain spiritual figures ( e.g. , the Virgin of Guadalupe among Mexican Americans ) , the observation of particular yearss of acknowledgment throughout the twelvemonth, the presence of communion tables or spiritual statuettes in the place, and daily supplication. Autochthonal faiths such as Santeria continue to be practiced by many in both open and covert ways ; many of these faiths use autochthonal therapists, such as curanderos. The values of marianismo and machismo refer to adult females ‘s religious orientation and gender function to digest the adversities of life and to work forces ‘s responsibility to take attention of their household and carry on the household name, severally.
As a consequence of generational and cyclical forms of in-migration and migration, Latino Americans must cover with the clang of cultural worldviews that stems from interactions with one ‘s ain cultural group, other Latino Americans, and mainstream U.S. society. Latino Americans differ from one another in their grade of socialization. A figure of socialization theoretical accounts have been proposed, but most depict a procedure of interaction between persons and assorted cultural groups, peculiarly one ‘s ain cultural group and the dominant society ( Slavin & A ; Calderon, 2001 ) .
What Are Some Of The Social Issues That Social Workers Should Be Aware Of?
There are some of the societal issues that societal workers should be cognizant of when working with this minority group. We see, historically, psychological science has played a negative function in misdiagnosing Latino Americans. Culturally appropriate behaviours, such as those exhibited in a familistic orientation, for illustration, have been misdiagnosed as enmeshment by those who are unfamiliar with Latino American cultural values. Social workers should be cognizant of this fact ( Slavin & A ; Calderon, 2001 ) . Clinicians who are non trained in cultural consciousness may lose of import culture-bound syndromes such as ataques de nervios, a type of anxiousness and choler response found among Latino American adult females. A culture-centered clinical interview, every bit good as culturally oriented appraisal techniques, have been developed to construct trust with clients and to cover with possible opposition to therapy.
Social workers should besides be cognizant of the fact that Latino Americans face a figure of challenges with respect to instruction: Merely 54 % alumnus high school, and merely 8.5 % alumnus college or university. At 50 % , Latino Americans have the highest high school drop-out rate of any racial or cultural group in the United States ( 70 % of these bead out by the tenth class ) . A history of racism and segregation of Latino Americans has played out in the school system. Latino Americans, like other racial and cultural minorities, have frequently been steered off from collegeoriented plans ( Garcia, 2001 ) .
The individuality struggles that qualify adolescent young person are more complex for Latino Americans because they must larn to set and develop cultural competence for a figure of scenes and cultural groups. Sex function socialisation and struggles may farther perplex individuality development and socialization. To make effectual guidance and educational intercessions, it is of import to analyze plans and schools that have been effectual in assisting Latino pupils, such as the active engagement of parents, instructors, and decision makers.
In short, I will state that because of comparatively high birth rates and legal and illegal in-migration Spanish americans are the fastest turning cultural group in the United States. Projections indicate that the per centum of Hispanics in the United States will be comparable to that of non-Hispanic Whites or perchance larger within the following 30 to 50 old ages. Because of the United States ‘ close propinquity to Mexico, Hispanics of Mexican lineage probably will go on organizing the largest Latino subgroup in the United States.