Texes 152 Counselor Exam

Erik Erikson’s Stages of Development
Stage 1: Infancy — Birth to 18 months
Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust

Stage 2: Early Childhood — Age 2 to 3
Crisis: Autonomy (Independence) vs. Doubt (or Shame)

Stage 3: Preschool — Age 3 to 5
Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt

Stage 4: Elementary and Middle School Years — Age 6 to 11
Crisis: Competence (aka. “Industry”) vs. Inferiority

Stage 5: Adolescence — Age 12 to 18
Crisis: Identity vs. Role Confusion

Stage 6: Young Adulthood — Age 19 to 40
Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation

Stage 7: Middle Adulthood — Age 40 to 65
Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation

Stage 8: Late Adulthood — Age 65 to death
Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair Important

Jean Piaget
Sensorimotor (Birth to 2 yrs.) Beginning of problem-solving
Pro-Operational (2-7 yrs.) Conservation and reversibility
Concrete Operational (7-12 yrs.) Classification and identification, inferences
Formal Operation (13 yrs.-adult) Abstract thinking
Lawrence Kohlberg
Premoral Punishment-reward
Relates to Self Conventional
Rule Conformity
Approval of Others
Morality of Self-Accepted Moral Principles
Contractual societal obligations
Individual principles and conscience
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Career Awareness K-6
Awareness of self, various occupations. and role of work in society.
Career Exploration 6-10
Development of concepts and basic skills
Related to self and world of work.
Career Orientation 9-10
Development of occupational knowledge and understanding of basic economic needs for career planning.
Career Preparation 10-12
Knowledge for entry into an occupation, ethical work habits, plans for post secondary education or training.
Post Secondary
Reaffirmation of occupational choice by further exploration of interests and aptitudes, development of career skills, and interpersonal skills.
Active listening
• Being alert, attentive, and concentrating on the speaker
• Maintaining eye contact
• Using effective body language—”leaning in”
with open posture
• Being genuinely interested in the speaker
(Rogers’ Unconditional Positive Regard)
• Being accepting of what the speaker has to say without judgement
• Remembering what has been said
• Not interrupting
Effective responding
• Using verbal or nonverbal reinforcers to let the student know his messages are being received. Nodding of head, facial expression, “Uh-huh”
• Clarifying meaning and understanding when necessary.
• Summarizing or restating ideas or information for further clarification “So what you are saying is…” or “What I hear you saying is…”
• Reflecting feelings expressed – “Sounds like you feel–” or “You must be–”
• Giving constructive feedback through non- judgmental statements.
• Helping the student clarify his needs by using non-threatening questions like “What would you like to see happen…”
• Guiding problem-solving through the use of
neutral questions . “I wonder what would happen if— ?” or “How would it be if— ?” or “What are some things you can do?”
Sigmund Frued emphasizes the division of the personality and the importance of the past for the reason for problems in the present.
Alfred Adler stresses the conscious as the center of the personality. Stress is on an individual’s positive attitude to give meaning and direction to his or her life through behavior changes.
Behavior Therapy
Lazurus, Bandura, and Wolpe stress changing behavior based not on past history but upon present situations. It is action based therapy motivated by the agreed upon goals of the individual and empirical evaluation of outcomes.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Albert Ellis holds that although problems began in childhood, they continue due to irrational and illogical thinking. Growth comes from the correction of these irrational thoughts and the identification of the reality of the moment.
Existential Therapy
Victor Frankl expounds the developmental concepts of the capacity for self-awareness, the acceptance of responsibility for our freedom, the preservation of our identity, human mortality, ever present anxiety, and the significance of death to the living.
Client-Centered Therapy
Carl Rogers emphasizes the ability of one to direct one’s life without the interpretation of a therapist, to experience the present moment, to
accept oneself and to determine the methods to change one’s own behavior.
Gestalt Therapy
Frederick “Fritz” Pearls focuses on the acceptance of responsibility, to experience the present, to resolve unfin- ished business from the past in order to move on, to deal with impasses in our lives by challenging the ways we use to fight our reaching the realization of our ability to solve our own problems.
Reality Therapy
William Glasser explains that behavior is our method to control our environment to fit our inner needs. He attempts to help individuals develop better ways of meeting the inner needs we have through the acceptance of the reality of our situations.
Transactional Analysis
Eric Berne believes that people operate in three ego states and that awareness is an important first step in changing our ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Three basic needs are stimulus, recognition, and structure.
Brief Therapy
Rosenberg and Wright maintain that this therapy is well suited to man- aged care and others include the school counseling setting. The group therapist sets clear and realistic treatment goals with the members, maintains an active therapist role, and works within a set and limited time frame.
Principles of Group Counseling
• Informed consent — parental consent of minors
• Knowledge of purpose and format of group
• Knowledge of responsibilities of group members
• Confidentiality (expected but not guaranteed)
• Freedom from coercion
• Freedom to leave a group
The Stages of the Group Process
• Initial Stage – Orientation and
• Transition Stage – Goal-setting
• Working Stage – Cohesion and
• Final Stage – Consolidation and
Techniques of Group Counseling
• Recruitment of group members
• Size limitation of group
• Physical setting
• Establishing group trust — setting norms
• Communicating responsibilities of group members
• Setting goals and/or use of contracts
• Journal writing, art, problem check lists and structured questionnaires, autobiographies, role-play, puppetry
• Dealing with conflict, fears, resistance
• Validation of members
• Celebration of progress
• Consolidation and termination
The school counselor understands the benefits and limitations of school counseling.
1. Benefits
1. Benefits
• Provides non-threatening environment for students to resolve issues, especially those occurring at school
• Convenient and cost effective for students/parents
• Provides/extends support system of students
• Facilitates realistic goal-setting
• Provides opportunity for valuable feedback from peers
• Guidance from counselor who understands school life and issues
The school counselor understands the benefits and limitations of school counseling.
2. Limitations
2. Limitations
• Time limitations of counselor especially with individual counseling
• Shorter than ideal counseling sessions –
short term therapy
• Confidentiality of group members may be more limited
• School counselor cannot effectively work with the whole family system
The school counselor knows when to consult or refer to other mental health professionals.
• Whenever student discloses plans to hurt him- self or others
• Minor use of alcohol or drugs
• Child abuse
• Family violence
• Symptoms of anorexia or bulimia
• Significant signs of depression
• Chronic problems with no progress
• Consistent At-Risk behaviors
• Threatening statements
• Cutting or body mutilation
• Debilitating family dysfunction
The school counselor knows how to refer students to other mental health Professionals and agencies.
• CPS for related issues
• School district drug/alcohol counselors for related issued
• Conference with parents and/or teacher and/or student
• Provide names of local mental health professionals and agencies upon parent request. Use of statements like “Have you considered—?” or “Some parents decide to—“.
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