Shortages of trained workers in growth areas, such as computer technology, biotechnology, robotics, green technology, and the sciences. Large numbers of skilled and unskilled workers from declining industries, such as steel and automobiles, who are unemployed or underemployed and need retraining. Underemployed workers are those who have more skills or knowledge than their current jobs require or those with part-time jobs who want to work full-time. A growing percentage of new workers who are under-educated and unprepared for jobs in the contemporary business environment. A shortage of workers in skilled trades due to the retirement of aging baby boomers. An increasing number of baby boomers who, due to the recession, delay retirement (preventing the promotion of younger workers) or move to lower-level jobs (increasing the supply of workers for such jobs). An increasing number of both single-parent and two-income families, resulting in a demand for job sharing, maternity leave, and special career advancement programs for women. A shift in employee attitudes toward work. Leisure time has become a much higher priority, as have flextime and a shorter workweek. A severe recession that took a toll on employee morale and increased the demand for temporary and part-time workers. A challenge from overseas labor pools whose members work for lower wages and are subject to fewer laws and regulations than U.S. workers. This results in many jobs being outsourced overseas. An increased demand for benefits tailored to the individual yet cost-effective to the company. Growing concerns over health care, elder care, child care, drug testing, workplace violence (all discussed in Chapter 12), and opportunities for people with disabilities. Changes through the Affordable Care Act that have added a large number of new regulations that employers must read, interpret, implement, and track. A decreased sense of employee loyalty, which increases employee turnover and the cost of replacing lost workers.
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