test 4 potential essays

question

List two internal and two external mechanisms of accountability for law enforcement. Briefly describe and discuss each of your examples.
answer

internal mechanisms: *routine supervision: –>one of the central tasks of police management –>responsibility falls primarily on the sergeants *performance evaluations: –>standard technique for holding employees accountable –> designed to provide feedback to employees by identifying areas of outstanding, acceptable, or inadequate performance so that the officer has an opportunity to improve –>used when considering employees for promotion external mechanisms: *The courts: –>i.e. US Supreme Court: increase public awareness about the details of police procedures; defined basic principles of due process;decisions on certain court decisions created penalities for police misconduct; decisions stimulated police reform –>courts all all levels of the government play a role in holding police accountable *Political Process: –>allows citizens to have a say in the police and other government agencies i.e the executive branch of government exercises control by appointing police chiefs, directors of state police, and the US attorney general
question

What are the five types of corruption discussed in the textbook? Give an example of each.
answer

*gratuities: i.e. free meals, free dry cleaning, discounts on purchases *bribes: i.e. accepting a bribe not to enforce the law EX: when an officer takes money not to write a traffic ticket *theft and burglary: EX: officers taking money from people arrested for drunkenness *internal corruption: when promotions or favored assignments must be purchased with bribes EX: during the 19th century, payment for promotion was so systematic in the NYC police department that there was a printed schedule of the price list for each rank *corruption and brutality: EX: officers brutally beating drug dealers, stealing their money, and selling the drugs to other dealers/officers
question

List two internal corruption control strategies and two external corruption control strategies for law enforcement. Briefly describe and discuss each of your examples.
answer

internal corruption control strategies: *the attitude of the chief: –>the head of the department must make it clear that corruption will not be tolerated *rules and regulations: –> clearly defining what actions will not be tolerated EX: developing written policies that specify forbidden acts; can also be used to control police discretion and achieve police accountability external corruption strategies: *special investigations: –>i.e. the Mollen Commission, the Knapp Commission –>have the advantage of being independent of the police department but may lack knowledge of the day-to-day workings of the department *criminal prosecution: –>include specific corruption-related offenses, theft, possession and sale of narcotics, and perjury –> easier than prosecution of excessive force complaints –>EX: easier to prove that an officer received a bribe and had criminal intent to receive it than proving an officer had criminal intent of beating someone

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