Test #2 chp 3-5 Flashcard

Naming Cations
1. for small main group metals name the element followed by ‘ion’
2. for all other metals name the element, then give the charge then ‘ion’
Naming Anions
name the element changing the ending to ide, then ‘ion’
“ium” ending
cation
“ate” or “ite” ending
oxygen
Naming Ionic Compounds
1. name the cation
2. then name anion
3. do not indicate #s of ions
Writing Compounds from Name
1. write the ions (with charge)
2. put them together by charge
% Composition
1. % are g
2. convert each element from g to m
3. divide by lowest number of moles
4. get whole number rations for the empirical formulas
Empirical Formula to Molecular Formula
1. calculate the formula mass from the empirical formula
2. Divide the molecular weight by formula mass
3. Multiply the empirical formula by the ratio
Combustion Data on molecules with only H and C
1. get moles of C from CO2
2. get moles of H from H2O
3. Divide by the lowest number of moles
4. get whole number ratios
Combustion Data for a Carbon, H, and O molecule
1. get mass of C from CO2
2. get mass of H from H2O
3. Subtract mass of C and H from total mass
4. convert all mass to moles
5. divide lowest number of moles
6. get whole number ratios
Naming (small) Covalent Molecule (non-metal)
1. name first element
2. Name second element, changing ending to “ide”
3. use prefixes to indicate numbers of each element (don’t use mono for first element)
Acid
donates a Hydrogen Ion H+
Base
Donates an OH- ion
Naming Acids (without oxygen)
1. name the hydrogen as Hydro
2. name the anion changing the ending to “ic”
Naming Acids (with oxygen)
1. don’t name the hydrogen
2. name the anion changing the ending:
ite….ous
ate….ic
Stoichiometry
1. get info in the problem
2. get a balenced equation
3. get molecular weight
4. set calculation
Theoretical Yeild
How much product can be formed
Ion Exchange
1. precipitation- froms a (S)
2. Acid/Base neutrilization- acid/base as reactent usually form H2O
Salt
an ionic compoind that is not an acid or a base
Acid/Base Neutralization
1. get reactant
2. Break (aq) reactatnts into ions
3. trade partners
4. put weak acids/bases back together
5. balence
6. break aqueous products into ions
7. cancel spectator ions
8. write net ionic
Gas Forming Reactions
1. get reactants
2. break (aq) reactants into ions
3.trade partners
4. write products, balence
5. replace intermediates with water and gas
6. break (aq) products into ions
7. cancel spectator ions
8. wirte net ionic
Reduction Oxidation Reactions (movement of electrons)
Redox
1.the oxidation number of a purte element is zero
2. the oxidation number of a monatomic ion is the charge on the ion
3. the oxidations nymbers of a compoind add up to zero
4. the oxidation mubmer of a polytomic ion add up to the charge on the ion
5. the oxidation of fluorine is -1, all other halogens have an oxidation number of -1 unless its with fluorine or oxygen
6. hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 when with a non metal, with a metal it is -1
7 oxygen has an oxidation of -2 unless it is a peroxide, then it is -1

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