Test #2 – Chemistry Flashcard

Dipole
polar molecule
Polar polar attraction
dipole dipole attraction; attraction between two molecules
free radical
odd unpaired electron in the molecule or atom
Equation for number of moles
# moles = weight/molar weight
How do you find Molarity
M = # moles of solute/ L of solution
Hydrogen bonding
Hydrogen + at least one of (F, O, N)
What causes DNA to be different?
Hydrogen bonding
Valence Electrons
Electrons on the outermost shell
Ionic bonds
the attractive forces between positive and negative ions
Octet Rule
rule of eight;
Covalent bond
bond formed by a shared pair of elections
electronegativity
measure of attraction of an atom in a molecule for a pair of shared electrons
Polar covalent bond
a molecule that has a dipole moment
Nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which there is an equal sharing of electrons
VSEPR theroy
arrangement of atoms about a central atom
law of combining volumes
when all measurements are made at the same temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products are in a small whole-number ration
Avogadro’s number
6.02 X 10 to the 23
mole
amount of substances that contains the same number of elementary units
formula mass
average mass of a formula unit relative to that of a carbon12 atom

# of atoms X atomic mass of element = formula mass

molar mass
mass of one mole of that substance

? mole of element = g of the sample X (1 mole of element/molar mass)

stoichiometry
quantitative relationship between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
Mass relationships
1. balance equations
2. Get molar masses
3. convert masses to moles
4. moles of one element X (1 mole of other element/1 mole of one element)
3. moles to grams
Ideal Gas law
PV = nRT
Avagadro’s law
v1/n1 = v2/n2
General gas law
(P1V1/T1)= (P2V2/T2)
Gay-Lussac’s law
P1/T1 = P2/T2
Charles law
V1/T1 = V2/T2
Boyle’s law
P1V1 = P2V2
Name 2 things for hydrogen bonding
1. Must have H, O, F, N
2. polar molecule (asymmetrical)
solute
substance being dissolved
solvent
substance doing the dissolving
melting point
solid to liquid
vaporization
liquid to gas
boiling point
the temperature that liquid turns to gas
condensation
vapor to liquid
freezing
liquid to gas
sulimation
solid to gas
dipole forces
forces between two polar molecules

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