 agreement between measured and true or accepted values 

 reproducibility between replicate measurements 

 Error that can be avoided or corrected 

 Truly random error; inherent uncertainty in measurements. 

 
 for required for acceleration 

 1 mole in 1 liter solution 

 specific gravity, grams/mL 

 contains 1 formula weight in 1 liter solution 

 
 
 
 
 amount needed to react with 1 mole of reactant 

 
 # of digits required to express a result consistent with given or measured precision 

 sy/y=z(sa/a) mult ratio by exponent, mult by answer 

 
 sy/y=sa/.434 divide by .434 the mult by answer 

confidence interval of the mean 
 a range with a certainty of containing the true value u=x+tSx=x+ts/sqrt(n) 

 comp 2 data sets Fcalc=s2^2/s1^2 Fcalc>1 big always on top 

 x1x2/sqrt(Sx1+Sx2)=tcalc 

 toss out data xxnear/xhixlo=Q 

 
 relative to mean for specific point xix/x 

relative average deviation % ppt 
 
 
 same as rel std dev in % s/x*100 

 
 error referenced to true value summ xixtrue/n 

 
 avg error rel to true val avg err/xtrue*100 

 effects for concentration pressure and temperature change in equillibrium 

 total charge of soln must be neutral. include H and OH 

 For particular type of species, the sum of the added amounts must be equal to the sum of all the possible forms in solution 

 solubility begins to increase after a certain concentration due to formation of complexes. 

 A=y[C] concentrations are really the Activity 

decrease effective charge (effect on A) 
 
 
 
Ion strength effects # ions increase 
 
 DHLL/1+(a*sqrt(u)/305) a is effective hydrated ion radius a=900 for H 

 tyndall efect – light scattering small particles<100nm 

 inch diameters desirable for analysis 

 Nucleation followed by particle growth in a super saturated solution 

 
 additional molecules deposit on growth nucleus 

 sol’n contains more solute than would be present at EQ =>precipitate 

 
 depends on SS ratek(QS)^x k and x constants 

 depends on ss and nucleus surface area rate=k’A(QS) 

 part rate / )  / ) /–/nuc ——— RSS 

 when a normally soluble substance precipitates out due to adsorption or occlusion 

 contamination by other insolubles 
