Test #1 chp 1-3 Flashcard

Chemistry
The scientific study of Matter
Scientific Process
1. Observation
2. Test
Theory V. Law
t- explanation in words
mathematical statement
Observation
Patterns and connections
hypothesis (if… then….)
Test
Controls
as soon as hypotheses is wrong, must change it
matter
has mass and volume
Matter is split into
Pure and mixture
Pure substance
cant separate physically
compound or an element
solid to gas
sublimation
gas to solid
deposition
distilation
separation- different things boil at different temperatures
exothermic
heat out, feels hot
endothermic
heat in, cold
1A
alkali metals
2A
Alkalen earths
7A
Halogens
8A
Noble Gasses
Metal quailities
1. Malleable
2. Ductile
3. Luster
4. conducts electricity
energy
kinietic (moving) mostly heat
potential (storage) mostly chem bonds
temperature v heat
spped and energy
significant figure rules
1. zeros to the left of a number are never significant
2. zeros in the middle of a number are significant
3. zeros to the right of a number are ambiguous
*if a decimal is present, the zeros are significant
swithcing notation
350.0=3.500*10^2
rules of calculation
(*)(/) report the answer to the lowerst number of sig fig in problem
(+)(-) report the lowest # of decimol places
theory
genralized hypothesis
law of mulitple propoeritons
whne two elemtns from different compounds, ratios will be different
mass charge
P=1 amu
N=1 amu
E=0 amu
1 mole
6.022*10^23
cations.. metals
(+) charged
1. small main group metals (1A-3A) have the charge of the group number
2. large main group metals have two possible charges. the group numbre and the group number -2
3. tranition metals need more info
Naming Cations
1. For small maingroup metals name the elemnt followed by ion
2. For all other metals name the elemnet then give the charge, then ion
Anions…non metals
(-) charge
the charge on an anion is the group number -8
naming anions
name the elemnt chaning the inding to ide, then ion
metals loose electrons to become cations
non metals gain electrons to become anions
ium ending
cation
ate or ite ending
oxygen
halogens ate v ite
per chlorage 4-
chlorate
chlorite
hypochlorite 1-
bicarbonate
hydrogen carbonate
Formula unit of ionic compoin
crystal patturn
smallest ratio that will add charge to 0
ions order
cation always comes first
ammoniom
only ionic compoind not metal and non metal NH4
Naming Ionic compounds
name the cation
then name anion
do not indicate numbers of ions
writing compoinds from name
write the ions (with charge)
put them together by charge

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