Terms – Chemistry Flashcard

Ion
An atom (or group of atoms) that has positive or negative charge resulting from the gain or loss of valence electrons
Isotopes
Atoms having the same atomic number but different mass number; atoms of the same elements that differ by the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Anion
A negatively charged ion
Cation
A positively charged ion
Electron Affinity
The amount of energy involved when a neutral atom gains an electron
Isoelectronic
A term for two or more ions(or ions and an atom) having the same electron configuration; ex Na+ and F- each have 10 electrons, and their electron configurations are identical to the noble gas Neon
Ionization Energy
The amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom in the gaseous state
Valence Electrons
The electrons that occupy the outermost s and p sublevels of an atom. the electrons in the highest s and p sublevels in an atom that undergo reaction and from chemical bonds.
Representative Elements
The Group A (1,2 and 13-18) elements in the periodic table: also termed main group elements.
Transition Elements
The group B(3-12) elements in the periodic table
Metals
an element that is generally shiny in Appearance has high density high melting point and is a good conductor of heat and electricity
Semimetals
An element that is generally metallic in appearance and has properties midway between those of a metal and a nonmetal; also called a metalloid.
Nonmetals
An element that is generally dull in appearance, has a low density, low melting point and is not a good conductor of heat and electricity.
Alkali Metals
Group 1/IA on the periodic table
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 2/IIA on the periodic table
Noble Gases
Group 18/VIIIA on the periodic table
Halogens
Group 17/VIIA on the periodic table
Lanthanides
Period 6 of Inner Transitional Elements
Actinides
Period 7 of Inner Transitional Elements
Inner Transitional Elements
Elements outside periodic table

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