Temperature and Heat Flashcard

_______ is a measure of
the hotness or a body/object
related to the freezing or
boiling points of water
Temperature
Each substance possesses a
different capacity to hold heat, known as:
Heat Capacity
Temperature Scale:
______ is the absolute
(metric) scale and includes
absolute zero (no heat in the
body)
Kelvin
Temperature Scale:
Degrees ______ is about 273 + K
Celsius
Temperature Scale:
Degrees ______ related to °C
by” °F = (9/5)(°C)+32 “
Fahrenheit
Energy also travels from the ____ temperature
object to the ____ temperature one
higher, lower
Explain how a wet towel on warm patient’s forehead cools the patient down.
heat leaves patient and water is heated
and evaporates
How does a thermos maintain temperatures so well?
The vacuum between the two walls of the thermos serves as an insulation layer. Because no air is there to transfer heat, temperature is maintained.
_______ of heat towards
environment or from
environment: walls of rooms
summer vs. winter
– Up to 60% of total exchange with
environment is this type of heat exchange
– If room is warmer than body, heat
transferred TO the body
– If room is cooler than body, heat
transferred FROM the body
Radiation
_______: transfer of heat by
touch either way, usually from a
solid (ex: exchange heat with a
chair)
Conduction
_______: our body cools/warms
in contact with cooler/warmer
moving fluid like air or water
– 12% or more of body heat losses here
– The source of heating or cooling is
continually replaced like from a fan
Convection
______: only heat loss from
body (no heat movement TO a body)
– Perspiration removes a large amount of
heat, loss of water
• Skin and lungs lose 600mL/day
– Controlled rates of sweating, regulates
heat loss (body cooling)
– Sponging therapy helps bring down
patient temperature by use of this
Evaporation
Give some examples of outside control of temperature regulation.
Air temp/humidity. evaporation, convection, radiation, solar radiation, reflected radiation, etc
Intrinsic body temperature control:

•________:

– Blood vessels in the skin
dilate (enlarge)
– More blood is close to the
surface of the body so it can
lose heat through radiation,
convection, and conduction
– “Flushing” of the skin often
observed here
– Up to 8x increase in heat loss

Vasodilation
Intrinsic body temperature control:

_______:

– Sweat glands in the skin are
stimulated by the brain to
automatically secrete sweat
– cooling

Sweating
Intrinsic body temperature control
_______:

– Hairs standing on end
– Tries to hold/trap more air
around the body to heat it

Piloerection
Intrinsic body temperature control:

Decrease or increase in ___ ____:

– Activities like shivering are
increased or decreased

Heat Production
Changes in _______:

– Can be increased up to 3.5x
to boost temperature as
needed

Metabolism
Without a heat loss mechanism, our bodies
would heat up ___ each hour
1°C
Normal body processes like ____ ____ ____ in each
of our cells produce much of our body heat.
burning of glucose
Ideally, heat loss = heat gain for __ __ ____ in the
overall organism
no net change
________: the body’s thermostat
• Monitor temp of blood being pumped through the brain
• Also uses info from skin sensors
• Controls the internal factors already discussed
Hypothalamus
_____:

– Results from resetting of the hypothalamus
“thermostat” to a higher temperature
– It is a “chosen” homeostatically-controlled
temperature—it is NOT necessarily OUT OF
CONTROL or regulation
– Is often beneficial
• Immune system works more efficiently at higher
temperatures

Fever
Loss of the ability for the body to control its own temperature means a Malfunction of the hypothalamus due to:
• Head injuries, brain surgery, Cerebrovascular
accidents
• Bacterial or viral functions
• Dehydration (no water available for sweating)
• Prolonged exposure to hot or cold
________:

– Due to injury, prolonged
exposure to a cold
environment like
submersion in cold water
– Reducing core body
temperature to 30-32°C
(86-90°F)
– Mostly issue with infants
(small body size) and
elderly (low metabolic
rates)

Hypothermia
Treatment for hypothermia
• Re-warming must be
done with great care
– Preheated IV fluids
– Humidified heated air or
oxygen (42-46°C / 108-
115°F)
_______:

– Too much heat gain in the body
– So much heat that body breaks
down completely regarding
temperature control
– Death is likely as are seizures
– Usually exposure to prolonged
overexposure to hot environment

Hyperthermia
Treatment for hyperthermia
Immediate cooling is prescribed
– Misting the body with water
(promote evaporation)
– Encourage heat loss by
conduction, convection, and
radiation are all used
– Must also try to re-hydrate
individual

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