Team Building Midterm

What are the five stages of the Tuckman model in order
1) Forming
2) Storming
3) Norming
4) Performing
5) Adjourning/Transforming
Stage 1 Forming
– Individuals are not clear on what they’re supposed to do
– The mission isn’t owned by the group
– Wondering where we’re going
– No trust yet
– High Learning
– No group history; unfamiliar with group members
– Norms of the team are not established
– People check one another out
– People are not committed to the team
Tasks of Forming Stage
– Establish base level expectations
– Identify similarities
– Agreeing on common goals
– Making contact and bonding
– Developing trust
– Members dependent
Stage 2 Storming
– Roles and responsibilities are articulated
– Agendas are displayed
– Problems solving doesn’t work well
– People want to modify the team’s mission
– Trying new ideas
– Splinter groups form
– People set boundaries
– Anxiety abounds
– People push for position and power
– Competition is high
– Cliques drive the team
– Little team spirit
– Lots of personal attacks
– Level of participation by members is at its highest (for some) and its lowest (for some)
Tasks of Storming Stage
– Identifying power and control issues
– Gaining skills in communication
– Identifying resources
– Expressing difference of ideas, feelings and opinions
– Reacting to leadership
– Members independent or counterdependent
Stage 3 Norming
– Success occurs
– Team has all the resources for doing the job
– Appreciation and trust build
– Purpose is well defined
– Feedback is high, well received, and objective
– Team confidence is high
– Leader reinforces team behavior
– Members self-reinforce team norms
– Hidden agendas become open
– Team is creative
– More individual motivation
– Team gains commitment from all members on direction and goals
Tasks of Norming
– Members agree about roles and processes for problem solving
– Decisions are made through negotiation and consensus building
Stage 4 Performing
– Team members feel very motivated
– Individuals defer to team needs
– No surprises
– Little waste. Very efficient team operations
– Team members have objective outlook
– Individuals take pleasure in the success of the team- big wins
– “We” versus “I” orientation
– High pride in the team
– High openness and support
– High empathy
– High trust in everyone
– Superior team performance
– OK to risk confrontation
Tasks of Performing
– Achieve effective and satisfying results
– Members find solutions to problems using appropriate controls
– Members work collaboratively
– Members care about each other
– The group establishes a unique identity
– Members are interdependent
Action Steps from Forming to Storming
– Set a mission
– Set goals
– Establish roles
– Recognize need to move out of “forming stage”
– Leader must be directive
– Figure ways to build trust
– Define a reward structure
– Take risks
– Bring group together periodically to work on common tasks
– Assert power
– Decide once and for all to be on the team
Action Steps from Storming to Norming
– Team leader should actively support and reinforce team behavior, facilitate the group for wins, create positive enviornment
– Leader must ask for and expect results
– Recognize, publicize team wins
– Agree on individual’s roles and responsibilities
– Buy into objectives and activities
– Listen to each other
– Set and take team time together
– Everyone works actively to set a supportive environment
– Have the vision: “We can succeed!”
– Request and accept feedback
– Build trust by honoring commitments
Action Steps from Norming to Performing
– Maintain traditions
– Praise and flatter each other
– Self-evaluate without a fuss
– Share leadership role in team based on who does what the best
– Share rewards and successes
– Communicate all the time
– Share responsibilities
– Delegate freely within the team
– Commit time to the team
– Keep raising the bar- new, higher goals
– Be selective of new team members; train to maintain the team spirit
Team leader behavior at forming stage
Supervisors need to be directive
Team leader behavior at storming stage
– Supervisors during this phase may be more accessible, but tend to remain directive in their guidance of decision-making and professional behavior
– Leaders must ask for and expect results
Team leader behavior at norming stage
Leader reinforces team behavior
Team leader behavior at performing stage
Supervisors of the team during this phase are almost always participative
What are the five dysfunctions of a team according to Lencioni?
1) Absence of Trust
2) Fear of Conflict
3) Lack of Commitment
4) Avoidance of Accountability
5) Inattention to Results
Absence of Trust
The fear of being vulnerable with team members prevents the building of trust within teams
Fear of Conflict
The desire to preserve artificial harmony stifles the occurrence of productive, ideological conflict
Lack of Commitment
The lack of clarity or buy-in prevents team members from making decisions they will stick to
Avoidance of Accountability
The need to avoid interpersonal discomfort prevents team members from holding one another accountable for their behaviors and performance
Inattention to Results
The pursuit of individual goals and personal status erodes the focus on collective success
Role of the leader at absence of trust
To build trust within a team, the leader must demonstrate vulnerability first. This require the leader risk loosing face in front of the team, so that subordinates will take the same risks themselves. Team leader must create an enviornment that does not punish vulnerability. Displays of vulnerability on the part of the team leader must be genuine; they cannot be staged.
Role of the leader for fear of conflict
Leader must avoid desire to protect member from harm. This leads to premature interruption of disagreements, and prevents team members from developing coping skills for dealing with conflict themselves. It serves only to strain the relationship by depriving the participation of an opportunity to develop conflict management skills. It also leaves them hungry for resolution that never occurs.
Leaders must demonstrate restraint when their people engage in conflict, and allow resolution to occur naturally, as messy as it can sometimes be.
A leaders ability to personally model appropriate conflict behavior is essential.
Role of the leader for lack of commitment
Leader must be comfortable with the prospect of making a decision that ultimately turns out to be wrong. The leader must be constantly pushing the group for closure around issues, as well as adherence to schedules that the team has set. They cannot place too high a premium on certainty or consensus
Role of the leader for avoidance of accountability
Leader must encourage and allow the team to serve as the first and primary accountability mechanism. Once the leader has created a culture for accountability on a team, he or she must be willing to serve as the ultimate arbiter of discipline when the team itself fails.
Role of the leader for inattention to results
The leader must set the tone for focus on results. If team members sense that the leader values anything other than results, they will take that as permission to do the same for themselves. Leaders must be selfless and objective, and reserve rewards and recognition for those who make real contributions to the achievement of group goals.
Symptoms of absense of trust
Invulnerability
Symptoms of fear of conflict
False harmony
Symptoms of lack of commitment
Ambiguity
Symptoms of avoidance of accountability
Low standards
Symptoms of inattention to results
Status and ego
What are the four C’s of Team Development according to Dyer
1) Context
2) Composition
3) Competencies
4) Change
Context
The need for teamwork, type of team needed, and the culture, structure, and systems that support teamwork
High performing teams manage context by
1) Establishing measurable team performance goals that are clear and compelling
2) Ensuring that team members understand that effective teamwork is critical to meeting those goals
3) Establishing reward systems that reward team performance
4) Eliminating roadblocks to teamwork that formal organizational structures might create
5) Establishing organizational behavior culture that supports teamwork-oriented processes and behaviors
6) Creating information systems to provide the team with needed information to make decisions
7) Establishing human resource systems to provide training, team members selection, methods, and so on to support teamwork
Importance of Context
Without a team-supportive organizational context, team development is difficult, even impossible
Continuum of Teamwork
1) Low team work (modular interdependence) would be a golf team
4) Moderate team work (sequential interdependence) would be a baseball team
7) High team work (reciprocal interdependence) would be a SWAT team
Composition
Team members skills, experience, and motivation as well as team size
Competencies
The team’s ability to solve problems, communicate, male decision, manage conflict, and so on
Types of Competencies
– Setting clear and measurable goals
– Making assignments clear and ensuring competence
– Using effective decision-making processes
– Establishing accountability for high performance
– Running effective team meetings
– Building trust
– Establishing open communication channels
– Managing conflict
– Creating mutual respect and collaboration
– Engaging in risk taking and innovation
– Engaging in team building
Change
The team’s ability to monitor its performance and make changes as needed
Common Problems Found in Teams
– Loss of production or team output
– A continued unexplained increase in cost
– Increases in grievances or complaints from the team
– Complaints from users or customers about quality of service
– Evidence of conflict or hostility among team members
– Confusion about assignments, missed signals, and unclear relationships
– Misunderstood decisions not carried out properly
– Apathy and general lack of interest or involvement of team members
– Lack of initiative, imagination, or innovation
– Ineffective meetings, low participation, or poor decision making
– High dependence on or negative reactions to the team leader
Team building cycle
Problem Identification
Data Gathering
Data Analysis
Action Planning
Implementation
Evaluation
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