Teaching Essays – Victims of Bullying Essay

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Victims of Strong-arming

Schools offer more than educational chances ; they offer many chances for societal interaction for young person. These societal chances besides offer many chances for kids to go victims of strong-arming. In the last 10 old ages, there has been a dramatic rise of research on intimidation in the United States. This research has been spurred by continued utmost school force where the culprits of the force had been victims of intimidation.

Strong-arming encompasses a scope of assorted aggressive behaviours, which are targeted at an identified victim ( Espalage, 2002 ) . It is differentiated from contending because it involves an instability in strength such that the person targeted has trouble supporting him or herself. Bullying has been a common obstruction of childhood for many coevalss ( Olweus, 1995 ) . Many people believe that intimidation is a natural portion of turning up that does non do serious injury but aid to toughen kids up ( Pianta & A ; Walsh, 1995 ) . On the other manus, extended research in this country has identified effects for the victims of bulling ( Olweus, 1995 ) .

There have been many high profile instances of victims of strong-arming who have retaliated by hideous school shots ( Kumpulamen, Rasanen, & A ; Puura, 2001 ) . A figure of recent surveies have investigated the immediate and short-run effects of equal victimization ( Espelage, 2002 ; Espelage & A ; Swearer, 2003 ; Nansel, Overpeck, Pilla, Ruan, Simons-Morton, & A ; Scheidt, 2001 ) . Rejection from a equal group has been linked to adverse psychological and physical effects ( Kumpulamen et al. , 2001 ) . Victims have been noted to be at hazard for increased degrees of depression, anxiousness, and psychosomatic symptoms ( Nansel et al. , 2001 ) . School turning away and feelings of isolation are common among victims. Furthermore, it has been reported that these victims of strong-arming are developing post-traumatic emphasis upset ( Kumpulamen et al. , 2001 ) . This reveals the damaging impact that peer rejection may hold on young person and the importance of more research on the long-run impact intimidation has on victims.

The media has portrayed “bullies” and “nerds or geeks” in legion movies, therefore conveying consciousness of childhood societal hierarchies and the desire to be accepted as portion of a group. The “nerds” are societal castaway who are normally victimized by their equals and frequently blamed for non being tough plenty. Recent research and pop civilization films like “Mean Girls” have brought more attending to misss and their intimidation behaviours. There is limited research on the prevalence and effects strong-arming has on misss ( Brinson, 2005 ) .

Many toughs experience mental wellness troubles. One survey found that tierce of toughs have attention-deficit upset, 12.5 % were enduring from depression, and 12.5 % had oppositional-conduct upset ( Kumpulamen et al. , 2001 ) . Bullies so in bend take out their defeats on person the see as weaker than them. These toughs are besides seeking to affect their equals. The rejection felt by the victim can hold a direct impact on their lives.

Several writers suggest that young person who are continually victimized may be at hazard for poorer psychological operation as grownups ( Espelage, 2002 ; Nansel et al. , 2001 ) . There has non been much research in this peculiar country. Little is known about how these victims map as grownups. Research suggest that striplings do non merely turn out of emotional jobs with age, which implies that young person who have hapless societal accomplishments may go on to see trouble in their country of keeping relationships as grownups ( Nansel et al. , 2001 ) . Espelage ( 2002 ) found that many victims of strong-arming continue to believe about their experiences of being bullied and remember painful memories good into maturity.

Depression and self-destructive ideation have been found to be common results of being bullied for both male childs and misss. Bullies themselves have been prone to depression ( Espelage, 2002 ) . Strong-arming behaviours has likewise been found to reassign from the schoolroom to the streets, male toughs holding been found to be 17 times more likely to be often violent outside of the schoolroom and female toughs over one hundred times more likely to be often violent on the streets ( Brinson, 2005 ) . Longitudinal research has found that strong-arming and aggressive behaviour were identified as being features of those pupils who subsequently became involved in condemnable behaviour ( Nansel et al. , 2001 ) .

Statement of Problem

There have been limited mixed-methods surveies on the phenomenon of intimidation ( Espelage & A ; Swearer, 2003 ) . There has been no research that has attempted to research the long term effects of strong-arming on persons who have experienced it. This survey will utilize a mixed-methods attack to research both the long term effects of strong-arming on persons that were bullied in their young person.

Statement of Purpose

The intent of this concurrent, assorted methods survey is to research and bring forth subjects about the long term effects strong-arming, that occurred in childhood, has on work forces and adult females. The quantitative research inquiries will turn to the prevalence of strong-arming between male and female participants that they encountered at school when they were in their teens. Qualitative open-ended inquiries will be used to examine important resiliency factors by researching facets of the intimidation experiences and how they impacted the person’s grownup life.

Theoretical Model

Several theories have sought to explicate the being of strong-arming behaviour. Some developmental theoreticians perceive intimidation as a child’s effort to set up societal laterality over other kids. This laterality is established through developmentally appropriate actions ; in the early old ages, when kids lack complex societal accomplishments, they bully utilizing physical agencies. As these open Acts of the Apostless are punished by martinets, and as kids develop a larger repertory of verbal linguistic communication, strong-arming becomes more verbal in nature. Finally, when kids gain the accomplishments to understand and take part in intricate societal relationships, they begin to utilize these relationships as a more covert type of strong-arming in order to set up power and societal laterality ( Smith, 2001 ) .

Resilience theory is defines as a person’s ability to get by or accommodate to nerve-racking state of affairss. In different environments, resiliency can hold different significances. In a high offense vicinity, resiliency could intend merely lasting unscathed from the force. This is holding the ability to get the better of a ambitious set of fortunes with success. Surveies in resiliency theory demonstrate that resilient persons are those who grow and develop as a consequence of injury. Rather than being stunted by life troubles, they recover from the traumatic events with an increased sense of empathy, enhanced get bying accomplishments. ( Pianta & A ; Walsh, 1998 ) .

Peer rejection theory provides an of import context for socialisation that fosters societal accomplishments that kids learn and use through out their lives. Rejection theory is based on the premiss that kids that are rejected by their equals are non given the same chances to socialise and develop socialisation accomplishments. This farther distances them from their equals ( Cole & A ; Gillenssen, 1993 ) .

Life class position is an appropriate lens to utilize when reexamining intimidation and the after effects it has on the victims of it. Research has shown that strong-arming can do victims to hold changing grades of posttraumatic emphasis syndrome ( Houbre et al. , 2006 ) . Elder ( 1998 ) researched the societal tracts in the life class. This research revealed that individual’s lives are influenced by their ever-changing effects of their experiences.

Research Questions/Null Hypothesis

Research Question # 1:

How are work forces and adult females impacted by the intimidation they encountered as young person?

Null Hypothesis # 1:

There will be no statistical important difference in how work forces and adult females are impacted by strong-arming that they encountered every bit youth as measured by the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire.

Research Question # 2:

How did intimidation as a young person affect work forces?

Null Hypothesis # 2:

There will be no grounds that being bullied in their young person will hold an impact on their grownup lives as work forces.

Research Question # 3:

How did intimidation as a young person affect adult females?

Null Hypothesis # 3:

There will be no grounds that being bullied in their young person will hold an impact on their grownup lives as adult females.

Research Question # 4:

What are the deductions in their current life that they feel resulted from the strong-arming they encountered as young person?

Null Hypothesis # 4:

There will be no statistically important grounds of deductions in their current life that were a consequence from strong-arming that they encountered as young person.

Research Question # 5:

How do they experience their intimidation experiences impacts their ability to socialise with people now?

Null Hypothesis # 5:

There will be no grounds that strong-arming experiences in their yesteryear will impact an adult’s ability to socialise with other people.

Definition of Footings

Bully/victims: persons who both bully others and are victims of intimidation ( Espelage & A ; Swearer, 2003 ) .

Bullying: aggressive behaviour that occurs repeatedly over clip and includes both physical and emotional Acts of the Apostless that are directed towards another person with the purpose to bring down injury or uncomfortableness ( Olweus, 1993 ) .

Bystander: person who observes a intimidation incident ( Olweus, 1993 ) .

Emotional Scarring: the association of negative feelings with the remembrance of painful memories of being bullied ( Espelage, 2002 ) .

Peer: an single belonging to the same groups based on age, class, and position ( Olweus, 1993 ) .

Victim of Bullying: an person who is exposed repeatedly over clip to aggressive behaviour that is inflicted by his equals with the purpose to do injury or uncomfortableness ( Espelage, 2002 ; Olweus, 1993 ) .


The premises made about the participants in this survey are that they are of sound head to take part in this survey.

The premises made that all of the participants will reply the web study candidly.

The premises made that all of the participants were bullied in their young person.

Boundary lines

The research recognizes the undermentioned boundary lines for the survey:

  • The sample size will be dependent of the sum of people who respond to the electronic mail of enquiry at this survey.
  • All respondents are mentally competent to reply the inquiries in the online study.
  • The participants have the possible to be spread out across the United States.


Quantitative research looks for generalizability of the research findings to the larger population ( Crestwell, 2005 ) . Generalizability is non every bit of import to qualitative research that is seeking to research a phenomenon and the impact it has. If more work forces react so adult females to this study, so it would non be an every bit distributed sample. Socio-economic position is non asked in this survey.

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