philosophy

Philosophy and Economy

The relationship between the United States government and the people has been changing gradually since the end of the civil war. Government’s involvement in the lives of American citizens has been on the rise. Here, then, are some examples of the US government’s involvement in the lives of Americans. Reconstruction era This was the period […]

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Philosophy

Curriculum can be defined as the set of courses, and their content, that are offered in learning institution whether primary, secondary, college or university. It can also be defined as the set of courses and contents that are offered in a … About Freedom essay Freedom remains a diverse topic. In this paper, I consider […]

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Logical Positivism: Influences on Philosophical, Theological and Scientific Inquiry

Logical positivism was a movement that was officially established in the small Vienna Circle in the 1920s. The group of 11 mathematicians, scientists and philosophers met regularly to discuss and campaign for a change in philosophical discourse. Rather than the metaphysical and normative pretensions that epitomised philosophy throughout Europe, the group advocated for a systematic […]

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How does Rousseau argue that obedience to the general will increases our moral liberty

The answer will try to convey the evidence to support Rousseau claim that obedience to the general will increases our moral liberty. Through the idea of the general will Rousseau advocates a form of direct democracy whereby the masses make decisions by themselves for themselves, therefore eliminating the need for a ruling party.Rousseau’s argument that […]

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What sceptical problem is Descartes considering

One of the main branches of philosophy is epistemology, that is knowledge, what it is, how much we can know and how we can ascertain truth. Scepticism questions whether it is possible to know anything and challenges our ability to obtain reliable knowledge. Generally speaking this is founded upon the argument that empirical data, although […]

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50 First Dates

In 50 First Dates, Adam Sandler plays the part of Henry Roth, a womanizer who has fallen in love with Lucy. Lucy (Drew Barrymore) was injured in a car crash and loses her short-term memory every time she falls asleep. When she awakens, she can remember nothing since the day of her accident. Henry pursues […]

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Foucault’s understanding of the Enlightenment with that of Horkheimer and Adorno

The Enlightenment has frequently provided the context or impetus for a number of contemporary analyses in critical theory. The period of the Enlightenment, perhaps above any other, has been an attractive topic to a number of different theorists from various European countries and theoretical schools. Brewer, writing about Diderot, identifies “[w]hat is contemporary about the […]

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St Of The Impossible Stone To Argue

St. Thomas Aquinas was an Italian philosopher of the mid-thirteenth century. He was sometimes referred to as the “Angelic Doctor”; he was a Dominican friar and believed to be the greatest medieval philosopher. One of his most famous works was the ‘Summa Theologica`, Which was sadly only half completed due to a religious experience, involving […]

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Jaspers’ distinction between the three immanent modes of the Encompassing

In Jaspers’ Philosophy of Existence he describes three different immanent modes of encompassing: Existence, Consciousness in general, and Spirit. Within each mode the world is observed in differing ways.To comprehend the three immanent modes we must first (1) understand what Jaspers means by the Encompassing and immanent modes. Then we must (2) understand what is […]

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“The Cogito”

‘The nature of the human mind, and how it is known better than the body’1 is the basis for Descartes argument “The Cogito” in his second of his Meditations. This argument stems from Descartes being left in the grips of doubt at the end Meditation One, where he calls all knowledge into question and that […]

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What did Kant think Enlightenment was

Immanuel Kant was a German Philosopher who was a key figure central to modern philosophy, he argued that mankind’s perceptions, classifications and concepts shape our outlook of the world, and that rationale is the source of morality. In Germany in the late 1700’s there was a newspaper called the ‘Berlinische Monatsschrift’, this newspaper put out […]

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Morality is the refuge of the weak

‘Morality is the refuge of the weak’ is an assertion fraught with ambiguity; there are assumptions and implications inherent in the words used and, indeed, the phrase as a whole which render a conclusion on the truth of it difficult to ascertain. This essay will attempt to explore these ambiguities through reference to the ideas […]

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What arguments does Descartes give us for thinking

Rene Descartes argues that sense perception is untrustworthy and not reliable enough to determine what is true and real. He gives us a number of arguments and examples to show how easy it is to deceive our senses. They are not a reliable authority to distinguish between right or wrong thus we need to use […]

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Locke, Berkeley and Hume’s empiricist approach to knowledge and the conclusions they reach

Empiricist philosophy arose out of doubts towards rationalism, in an attempt to search for a theory of knowledge that would be consistent with ordinary human behaviour. Instead of seeking absolutely certain knowledge about an alleged real world, empiricists have tried to discover where we get our information from and what degree of reliability it actually […]

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Descartes Causal Argument For the Existence of God Found in Meditation III

When Descartes reaches his third meditation he has already established his own existence, through the ‘Cogito’, and the fact that all his thought processes occur under a unity of consciousness which he names the ‘Res Cogitans’. However, he has not, as yet been able to prove the existence of things external to him, all he […]

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Evidence of an Afterlife or Not

Near death experiences (NDEs) are found to be very common in all different countries. NDEs are explained by a separate soul or consciousness rising out of the body and slowly, peacefully floating to the ceiling. When the victim has reached the ceiling he/she will watch down on their own body and can recall what has […]

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Progressivism Philosophy Paper

Scientific method is used. “Unlike Perennials and Fundamentalism, it rejects unchanging and universal absolute facts and sees change as the center of education” (Wilma, 2011, p. 344). Extreme formalism and traditional education is opposed in Progressivism. Interdisciplinary teaching is performed and the assessments rarely focus on rote memorization. The goal is to get students to […]

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How did Brett Whiteley portray the body

In the same way Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo used techniques to express the body in a way they thought was acceptable – as it was, Whiteley used techniques to express the body in a way he thought was acceptable. By doing so, Whiteley added character and life into his artwork, by distorting and changing […]

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The feeling of another person should never be imposed upon us as a law

Question 1In this essay I will answer two questions that relate to Freidrich’s quote, ‘[T]he feeling of another person should never be imposed upon us as a law’. Question one will answer; in my opinion is Friedrich’s view consistent with Rousseau’s ideas from The Social Contract. Question two considers what evidence there is in David’s […]

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Art History & Philosophy

1) In a democracy, ought members of a persistent minority feel obliged to obey laws with which they do not agree and have no hope of changing?Firstly, we must establish what a “persistent minority” actually is. In block 3, it is described as people who are always on the losing side of elections (Block 3, […]

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You know that you are reading this book

The statement “you know that you are reading this book,” has to be based on the premise that we can actually know anything as all. That, in turn, leads to questioning where we get our knowledge from in the first place. Furthermore, even if one was to find an answer, could it be proven sufficiently […]

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Is the activity of an intelligent designer the best explanation

I believe that the activity of an intelligent designer is the best explanation of our universe as a whole, as the inherently teleological features that exist within our universe cannot be explained purely by chance. As Aquinas said, all things “achieve their end, not fortuitously, but designedly…therefore, some intelligent being exists by whom all natural […]

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