swimming pool management

1 meter = ___ feet
3.28 feet
1 yard = ___ feet
3 feet
How do you calculate the volume (gallons) of a swimming pool?
area(l*w) * average depth * 7.5 = gallons of pool
Saturation Index
pH + Temp + TA + CA – TDS

Ideal range = -.3 – 0 -.3
Corrosive – balances – scale forming

Optimal ranges
pH = 7.2-7.8
AL = 80-100 ppm
CL = 1-2 (should not fall below 1) = 2-4 pools and 3-5 spas.
Ca Ha = 250-500
Temp = should not be greater than 104 degrees
When pH is too high, add acid
As acid combines with water, it increases the hydrogen ion concentration, and lowers the pH. Muriatic and sodium bisulfate are examples.
If pH is too low, add sodium carbonate
different from sodium bicarbonate. combines with hydrogen ions to reduce the hydrogen ion concentration.
What reagent is used to test for pH?
phenol red
What reagent is used to test for chlorine?
DPD
Breakpoint chlorination
term for adding chlorine to remove all combined chlorine in the water. To achieve truly, you must add free chlorine equal to 10 times amount of combined chlorine.
Factors affecting disinfection consumption
Bather load temperature.
Risk management practices
1) Controlled access aquatic venues (e.g., lazy rivers) not requiring depth markers throughout.
2) Expanded employee training to cover fecal- and vomit-related pathogen response and clean-up.
3) Potential sources of glare and ways to prevent glare in aquatic venue design.
4) Consideration of water temperature and patron use.
5) Expanded chemical storage and handling.
6) Use of remote monitoring systems.
7) Employee illness policies.
8) Inspection items for daily opening and closing of aquatic features or venues.
Lifeguard training requirements
Lifeguarding/first aid
CPR/AED
Pool operators if senior guard
Weir
pivoting flap, door or dam in a skimmer that keeps bugs and leaves from re-entering a pool or spa by collecting the debris in a basket while letting water recycle through the filter system.
Turnover rates
pool – 6 hours
spa – 30 minutes
wading pools – 1-2hours
formula = pool volume/flow rate/60 min/hr
Hyperthermia
the condition of having a body temperature greatly above normal.
Hypothermia
the condition of having a dangerously low body temperature.
Temp ranges for pools and spas
General purpose pools are usually in the range of 78 to 86 degrees. Competitive swimmers like it on the cooler side (78 to 82), while family leisure pools are usually at 86. Spa pools are recommended to be under 104 degrees. Ideally the pool and air temperature should remain within 10 degrees of each other.
Pool drain requirements
Enhance the safety of public and private pools and spas
Reduce child drownings in pools and spas (nearly 300 each year are children younger than five)
Reduce the number of suction entrapment incidents, injuries and deaths
Encourage the use of multiple safety steps
Educate the public on the importance of constant supervision of children in and around water
In its role as the lead agency implementing and enforcing the Act, CPSC is working with the pool and spa safety community to encourage the use of multiple safety steps, such as fencing around pools, constant supervision of children and requiring anti-entrapment drain covers and other safety devices on all public pools and spas.
The Act establishes a series of strict standards for public pool and spa safety, focusing on the importance of installing anti-entrapment drain covers and other devices in public facilities. The compliance effort is complemented by public education efforts through CPSC’s Pool Safely campaign.
The P&SS Act mandated the following changes in federal pool and spa regulations for public pools and spa:
All pool drain covers manufactured, distributed or entered into commerce on or after Dec. 19, 2008, must meet the ASME/ANSI A112.19.8 standard.
All public pools and spas must be equipped with new ASME/ANSI A112.19.8 compliant drain covers.
Pools and spas operating off of a single main drain (other than an unblockable drain) must also add one or more of the following options:
A safety vacuum release system (SVRS)
A suction-limiting vent system
A gravity drainage system
An automatic pump shut-off system
A disabled drain
Any other system determined by the Commission to be equally effective as, or better than, the others listed above.
A pool may have more than one single main drain. If a pool has dual or multiple main drains more than 3 feet apart, it may be exempt from this final requirement. Pools and spas with single main drains that are unlockable are also exempt from this requirement.

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