Sustainability Marketing

Why did the scale and nature of economic growth during the twentieth century create problems?
Partly by improvements in medical science that raised the average global life expectancy and partly by the green evolution, in agriculture that expended the global food production. It was also the era of world war, of flight and space exploration, of mass tourism, of computerized information technology, of cheap and plentiful oil and of the great car economy. We had more information about other areas in the world and could travel to them. The globalization is also one factor, the colonial era was over. Then we hade the expansion in our material wealth. The market could both change and shape the world.

ON the other hand the believe in economy growth is one factor. We thought that we could fix poverty etc. with this. Also we believed that the physical problems could be solved through technology.

What is the Brundtlands reports basic definition of sustainable development and what is the key principles whit in it?
“Meeting the needs of the present whiteout compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs”

The report recognized the interdependencies between the natural environment, human social welfare and economic activity and the need to establish a and maintain a dynamic balance between the three.

Key principles

• Needs – Two different types of needs
o Anthropocentric – Focusing on the maintenance of a healthy and sustainable environment as necessary for human well-being. It places the human over all living species on earth.
o Biocentrism – Focusing on that every species on the earth are worth the same. Human beings should not be pre-eminent
• Equity – A fairer distribution of the cost and benefits of economic development, between countries, regions, races and age groups and between sexes. Under the twentieth century we failed to close the gap between the richest and the poorest nations. 20% of the richest people stand for 86% of the consumption.
• Intergenrationallity – The balance between present needs and the future needs. Think about the original definition.
• Global environmentalism – The environment is seen as a holistic, dynamic and vulnerable physical system with a finite ability to provide our productions and consumption.

What are the three groups of sustainability approaches identified by Hopwood et al., and what is the difference between them?
eller samhället har oöverkomliga problem. De menar på att förändringar kan göras men utan en större påverkan på företag eller politikers beteende. De flesta individer inom status Que. arbetar förmodligen inom den tyngsta makteliten.

Reform – Dessa individer accepterar att det finns stora problem, de är kritiska till hur beslutsfattarna samt företagen idag agerar, men trots detta ser de inte troligt som att miljön eller samhället kommer kollapsa, de ser de inte heller som nödvändigt med överdrivna fundamentala förändringar. Man kan säga att de bryr sig väldigt mycket, och tror att detta inom sinom tid kommer att lösa sig på ett eller annat sätt.

Transformation – Extremer kan man säga, de ser de stora problemen både i samhället och i miljön. De lägger stor vikt i hur relationen mellan människan och miljön ser ut. De argumenterar för att det måste ske en förändring gällande relationen för att undvika en total kollaps.

What are the core components of the modern mainstream marketing discipline?
• The marketing philosophy – Founded on the idea to meet the needs and wants of the consumer.
• The marketing environment – Marketing should be outwardly focused function whit in a business, helping to understand and respond to the environment.
• Marketing research – The marketing should be based on insight
• Marketing segmentation and targeting –
• The marketing mix
• Competitive advantages – With the understanding of the market and the consumer a business can provide something unique
• The marketing planning and management process –
Challenges for the Twenty-First Century
➢ Population
➢ Poverty – almost half of the worlds population lives on less than two dollars/day
➢ Health – although improvements in health technology have raised the life quality, a number of health issues continued to threaten the quality of lives worldwide.
➢ Urbanization
➢ Resource depletion – more aluminium, coppar, oil etc. were consumed in the twentieths century than all previous centuries combined.
➢ Ecosystem damage – Ecosystems provide food and regulate the climate and temperature.
➢ Eroding cultural diversity
➢ Food
➢ Water
➢ Climate change
Core components of the foundation of marketing theory and practice
• The market philosophy – meeting the needs and wants of the customer is the principle around which a business should be organized,
• The marketing environment – marketing should be an outwardly focused function within a business, helping to understand and respond to the environment within which it exists.
• Marketing research
• Market segmentation and targeting
• The marketing mix
• Competitive advantage
• The market planning and management process
How is macro marketing different from micromarketing? Define ecological marketing and green marketing, explain similarities and differences
Macro marketing is the discipline that deals with the impact of marketing on the natural environment, health, employment, education and welfare. It sees the bigger picture and does not focus on one individual player. They talk about marketing from the perspective of a whole system and groups of institutions. Talks about the social context.

Ecological marketing – Was developed in 1970. Drawing the attention to both the negative and positive impacts of marketing on the natural environment. Deals with marketing activates that cause environmental problems and that provide remedies for environmental problems. Looks at the marketing mix from a ecological pov. For example studying how the use of critical substances is handled. We have companies like body shop, Ben&Jerry etc.

Green marketing – But it can be difficult to generate and sustain competitive advantages. Green products are often vulnerable to the credibility of their environmental claims. It’s hard to market a product as the greenest, it’s much easier to market the faster or most efficient car for example.

During the second half of 1990s, it became obvious that it is difficult to generate and obtain competitive advantages on the basis of superior environmental quality. What are the main reasons for the so-called backlash against green marketing?
Green products often proved vulnerable to competitive tactics such as discounting or attack on the level of technical performance or the creditability of the environmental claims. It’s hard to market the “greenest” product, much easier to say the fastest car etc.

Another problem is the gap between what the green consumers ought to do and what they actually do, and the cynicism towards corporate greening offers.

What are the main elements of sustainability marketing?
The traditional view of marketing is the marketing director planning, organizing, implementing and controlling marketing resources and programmes to satisfy consumer wants and need in order to achieve corporate goals, therefore they need to adopt at market and consumer orientation. Sustainability marketers do the something but they also consider the social and environmental criteria while meeting corporate goals. You can see it as building and maintaining sustainable relationships with customers, the social environment and the natural environment. It’s a long-term orientation. Figure 2.3

The fist two elements are part of an analysis of the corporation’s external environment. They help to identify the socio-ecological issues in the market place and develop knew opportunities the third and fourth elements are strategic marketing decisions at corporate level. The sixth element is the company’s participation in public political process to change institutions.

The sustainability marketing mix four C’s
1. Customer solutions – Goes beyond just selling products and present a solution to the customers problem
2. Customer costs – does not only involve monetary cost, but also the physiological, social and environmental cost of obtaining, using and disposing a product
3. Convenience – Means that a customer wants to use a product and service that meet their needs and that’s its easy to access and use it
4. Communication – s a process of interactive dialogue, which is essential to build trust and credibility.

Define CSR, what’s the link between CSR and SM
“CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with stakeholders on a voluntary basis.”

Distinction between these three.

CSR – Limited to social issues, employee rights, and human right and community involvement.

Another element is CSR in relation to the stakeholders. A company is not only driven by the interest of their own owners and shareholders. There is a long range of other groups that a company have to take in consideration.

Steps towards a systematic and strategic CSR approach includes identifying, prioritizing and addressees the social and environmental issues that matter the most or which a company can make the biggest impact. 3 different categories.

1. Generic social impacts – Issues that may be important for the society but neither significantly neither affected by the company operations nor do the influence the long-term competiveness.
2. Value chain social impacts – Issues that are significantly affected by corporate activates in the ordinary course of business, whole value chain, supply chain etc. is involved.
3. Social dimensions of competitive context – Issues that significantly affect the underlying drivers of competitor

➢ Societal marketing:
Suggests that the intersection of the three perspectives of organizational goals, consumer goals and societal goals leads to long-term marketing opportunities and success. The societal marketing concept differentiates between immediate consumer satisfaction and long-run satisfaction. According to these two dimensions, products can be classified into 4 categories; Longterm/immediate

Salutary products High/Low
Deficient products low/low
Desirable Products High/high
Pleasing products Low/High

Based on the societal product classification, companies can develop four basic strategic norms:
1. Elimination of deficient products
2. Incorporation of pleasing qualities into salutary products
3. Incorporation of salutary qualities into pleasing products
4. Investment in the development and marketing of desirable products, which meet both consumer and societal goals.

• One problem with the concept of societal marketing is who defines what is, and what is not, in the interest of consumers and society.
• Another problem lies in pleasing products, which serve immediate customer wants and are highly profitable, but are not necessary beneficial for consumers and society in the long run.

➢ Social marketing
Refers to the application of marketing principles, concepts and tools to problems of social change. Social marketing programmes are designed to influence the behaviour of individuals or communities to improve their well-being or that of society. Social marketing is concerned with macro marketing issues, but it generally takes a micro perspective, that is social marketing programmes are usually planned and implemented by individual public service or nongovernmental organizations focusing on a special issue. Fetma, sluta röka, rösta.
➢ Ecological marketing
Drawing attention on both the negative and positive impacts of marketing on the natural environment. In relation to ecology, it deal mainly with the depletion of energy and non-energy natural resources and pollution. Ecological marketing deals with marketing activities cause environmental problems and that provide remedies for environmental problems. Looks at the marketing mix from an ecological point of view.
➢ Green marketing and Environmental marketing
Focusing on the target group of green consumers who would be willing to pay premium prices for more environmentally friendly products.
➢ Sustainable marketing
Embraces the idea of sustainable development, which require a change in the behaviour of virtually everyone, including both producers and consumers. Defined as building and maintaining sustainable relationships with customers, the social environment and the natural environment.
➢ Ethical context
The emphasis within CSR on companies going beyond their basic legal responsibilities has put the moral responsibilities and the ethics of managers and their behaviour in the spotlight.
Ethical issues in marketing:
• Product issues; product safety, quality, design.
• Price issues; price fairness
• Place issues; distribution rights, channel control
• Promotion issues; advertising ethics, product placement
• Decision-making issues; CSR
• Consumer issues; ethical values
• International/cross-cultural marketing ethics
• Marketing research issues; ethical responsibility
• Ethics in marketing education;
• Ethical dimensions of particular types of marketing;
• Marketing, ethics and the law;
• Ethical issues related to the internet;
➢ Socio-Political Context
the wider macro environment, which provides the context within which markets, influences all marketing activity, marketers and their customers operate. From a macro perspective, it is also important to understand the influence that the wider environment has on the development of sustainability marketing. A challenge when promoting sustainability, as an approach to marketing is that it don’t fit with the dominant social paradigm. A society’s DSP represent the values, beliefs, institution and habits that combine and create the lens through which its people view, interpret and understand the world around them.
➢ Global context
it is important to consider for sustainability marketing the global context. Both marketing and sustainability are global phenomena, but can each operate and have impact at the local level.
What does the IPAT formula say? What is the link between the IPAT formula and marketing?
environment is the result of three factors: Population, consumption per person (affluence) and technology. IPAT = Population X Affluence X Technology = Impact.

Marketing has a relative small impact on population but the manufacturers of condoms and contraceptive pills or the operation of dating agencies may se this differently.

The impact on the others are much greater, it promotes a consumer society and materialistic lifestyle, which impose problems on the social and natural environment. On the other hand it helps develop and diffuse sustainability innovations.

Marketing can both be a part of the problem and the solution.

Explain the phenomenon of global warming as one of the main global environmental problems and its possible consequences for nature and human beings
There is mounting scientific evidence that the build-up of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere leads to global warming. The temperature have risen about 0,75 degrees since the nineteenth century. Most of the warming attributes from human consumption. Possible consequences are increased sea levels, increase in extreme whether, heat waves, changes in agricultural yields, glacier retreats or a increase of biological extinctions.

Pollution and water pollution

Describe the concept and stages of the product life cycle from cradle to grave. Compare it to the conventional product life cycle commonly used in marketing
The new product life cycle focus on the products socio-ecological terms. Where the later chart focus on the economy growth over the lifetime of a product.
figure 3.4
Define the life cycle assessment LCA and describe the process of conducting LCA study
LCA is a quantitative instrument that measures and assesses the impact of products on the environment and human health. The LCA studies have been standardized true ISO. THA process of LCA consist of for interrelated phases.

• Goal and scope definition – Define functional unit to analyze e.g., 1 litre of milk or one can of beer. ‐ Comparison of two alt. packages? ‐ System boundaries e.g., cradle‐to‐grave, cradle‐to‐(factory) gate, or cradle‐to‐cradle

• Inventory analysis – Inventory of material & energy flows related to functional unit of analysis (e.g., xx of kwh, liters of water). ‐ Software like SimaPro & Swiss Eco invent database can be helpful

• Impact assessment – Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is carried out: ‐ Selection and def. of impact categories ‐ Assessment of input and output data to above categories ‐ Aggregation of these data.

• Interpretation – Data from the inventory analysis & impact assessment are interpreted & practical conclusions are drawn.

What role do the media play in constructing social and environmental problems?
Many of the socio-ecological are not experienced directly by people. They often happen in remote places long away from people. Therefore mass media plays a vital role in putting the environmental problems on the agenda. These problems are discovered by scientists and transmitted by the media. The public attention is a commodity and the environmental issues compete with other issues in the world. According to the issue attention cycle, public attentions rarely remains focused over a long time. But there is many of the environmental problems that have accorded over time therefore the attention has stayed mainly quite high on the agenda.
Environmental impact
– Is the outcome of the three factors in the IPAT-formula. The natural and human environments interact in many different ways.
• Sources – Natural sources are divided between renewable sources (Has a way of regenerating itself, such as air, water, timber). If managed properly a renewable resource provides steady yields forever – if used to a greater extend then it can regenerate, it becomes an non renewable resource. Natural resources as oil and gas takes million of years to form. Since fossil fuels do not reform at the rate at which we use up them, they are an non renewable resource.
• Sinks – a layer of gases called the atmosphere surrounds the surface of the earth. The global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased, which leads to global warming.
• Systems – Despite increased scientific attention to environmental problems, many of the threats are far from being completely understood. One of the reasons is that the environmental issues involved are not isolated. They are interrelated, and there are many interactions between the natural and human environment. Economic activities generate greenhouse gases, in which affect he atmosphere, and in turn habitats and species.
Why have marketers conventionally focused on the purchase phase of consumption process?
This is logical since this is generally the point at which a contract is established between the buyer and seller, money switch hands and ownership of products transfers to the customer. From a legal and economic perspective this is important but socio-ecologic it has impact on other stages of the total consumption process.
What characteristics of a particular purchase may influence the consumer’s willingness to behave in a way that takes account of social or environmental concerns?
• Sustainable Homes – Our homes is the local point of much of our consumption, and creating, maintaining and managing our homes involves a range of consumption behaviours. The sustainability impact will comprise a number of different elements; The construction of the building, Heating, cooling, lightning, water use etc.
• Sustainable Food and Drink – Food and drink consumption behaviours are a mixture of fast-moving consumer goods purchasing from retailers, domestic management behaviours and purchasing for consumption outside the home in restaurants. The sustainability impact linked to food and drinks will depend on the nature of the product consumed, how much packaging is required and how far away it is sourced from.
• Sustainable Mobility – One of the most significant contributions to climate change comes from the energy consumed for the journeys that we make between home and work, and other trips for leisure.
According to the findings of EIPRO project, which areas of consumption account for 75-80% of our environmental impacts as consumers?
• Food and drink consumption
• Housing
• Transportation
Which three schools of academic thinking provides partial explanations for sustainable consumer behavior?
• Rational explanations
o Emphasizes the economics of sustainable consumption and how consumer weigh up the functional benefits and relative affordability of a product or service
o Concept of perceived benefits and costs
o Perceived benefits – Perceived cost = perceived net benefit
o Basic assumption that consumer will choose the good with highest perceived net benefit.
• Physiological explanations
o A more emotional explanation of our behavior
o Focused on how we think and fell about sustainability
o Under groups
• What do I think is important
• What do I believe about sustainability
• What does it mean for me
• Do I share some responsibility
• Can I make a difference
• How do I see myself
• Sociological explanations
o Focus on the relation between the human and the good
o What does a certain type of wear mean? (Tiger ex) Or a diet? (vegetarian)
o Who are we? And how do we want to be perceived by other?
o Social norms
What are the three approaches to collaborative consumption?
• Product service systems
o Considering the delivery of value to a customer as a system which products provide values to consumer as part of a service offering rather then depending on the consumer buying it
o Exempale car hire, library etc.
• Communal Economies
o Combine consumers to increase their buying power
o Tries to bring down the prices
o Or eliminate individual shopping trips, packaging etc.
• Redistribution markets
o EBay, amazon etc.
o Places to buy old used stuff
The Consumption Process
1. Recognition of a Want or Need – Food, emotional and social needs etc.
2. Information Search – Key source is personal sources.
3. Evaluation of Alternatives- Sustainability -oriented consumers will weight up the merits of particular solutions that are marketed to them, and are likely both to make comparisons amongst relatively sustainable goods, and between them and their more conventional counterparts.
4. Purchase
5. Use – For many durable products, particulary energy-using appliances, the use phase will generate more environmental impacts than either the production or disposal phase.
6. Post-Use – Variety of possible consumer behaviours; Disposing of the product, recycle, selling etc.
What is the difference between needs and wants? Which factors influence wants?
• Needs
o Internal forces that drive or guide are actions
o Great variety of them such as:
• Substance
• Protection
• Affection
• Understanding
• Participation
• Leisure
• Creation
• Identity
• Freedom
o The satisfaction yields positive feelings
o Dissatisfaction yields negative feelings
o Are finite and few
• Wants
o Are needs that are directed to a specific object that may satisfy the need
o Are numerous in variety
Describe four types of sustainability marketers with respect to ethical/moral and economics/strategic moves – p. 127 figure 5.3
Degree of ethical motives/Degree of economic strategic motives
• Self-employers low/low
o Don’t want to change the world or get rich
o Do not have distinct ethical or economic motives
o Want to survive on the market and make a decent living
o The business reflect the lifestyle of the owner
• Do-gooders high/low
o Care deeply about socio-economic factors
o Principles before benefits
o Founder of body shop Anita Roddick
• Opportunists low/high
o Mainly believe in making money regardless of the meaning
o Put profits before principals
o As long as whit in the legal right they offer all kind of goods in any kind of market
• Ethical strategists high/high
o Mixed motives
o Try to balance principals and profits
o Try to meet the bottom line of sustainability marketing
o Claus Hipp is an example
What does brand ethos mean?
To underline the fundamental meaning of core values and to convey them within and beyond the company, core values are often expressed in wr
itten statements, including corporate visions, missions, philosophes and principles. Such core values create the brand ethos, the WHY behind the WHAT and the HOW of the things companies do.
– Brand Ethos is the character of a brand. It gives a deeper meaning to the brand. Ideally, brand ethos reflects the core values of the company, its product and services

• Ethos is the Greek word for character
• Brand ethos is the WHY, WHAT and HOW of the things companies do
• The core brand values creates the brand ethos
• Describes the guiding beliefs, ideal or fundamental ideas
• Gives deeper meaning to the brand

List five social and ecological objectives in sustainability marketing
The economic objective of marketing have to complemented with socio-ecological objectives. Because if marketers only focus on the short-term economical effect they are less likely to engage in sustainable actions.

The triple bottom line

• Economic objectives
o Still relevant for sustainable marketing
o May be to increase revenues and shares of sustainable products and services
o Shift from single transaction to long-term relations, therefore customer satisfaction and customer value become relevant
• Ecological objectives
o Managing the ecological impact of consumption
o This information can be drawn from LCA
o Material use
o Water use
o Emissions
o Effluents
o Waste
• Social objectives
o Heal tans safety are vital
o Consumer don’t want to use products that will risk theirs or other health and safety
o A broader consideration of the “world behind he product”
o Implementation of HR management programmes
o Implementation of freedom of association educational programmes
o Conduct of survey on satisfaction and empowerment of workers
o Zero excess overtime

Describe the five stages of the issue-attention cycle according to Downs (1972) p.148-150 figure 6.3
According to Down public attention rarely remains focused on any socio-ecological problem for very long, even if it’s critical to society. He argues that the public attention on any issues goes trough a cycle of five stages

• Pre problem stage:
o At the beginning the problem exists in society but has not yet attracted much public attention
• Discovery stage
o Some critical or newsworthy incidents or developments occur.
o They receive widespread coverage in mass media and attracts public attention.
• Solution stage
o Public attention creates pressure on politicians to do something about the issue
• Decline stage
o As the difficulty and the cost of tackling the problem rises the public attention wanes
• Post-problem stage – Issues having slipped down the agenda
• Receives reduced attention or only spasmodic recurrences of interest.

Explain the two kinds of sustainability marketing transformations from the outside by means of examples
• Indirect sustainability marketing transformation process
o Addressed through market-based approaches
o Such as setting the price right
o Giving insensitive to consumers and producers to act “right”
o Think of the car industry with hybrid and electric cars etc.
• Direct sustainability marketing transformation processes
o Comes from the public via policy politics to the market
o In some cases pressure from sustainable marketing transformation can go direct from the public to the market
List and describe the different kinds of key actors who play a vital role in sustainability marketing transformation from outside in
A key actor is those powerful stakeholders who exert in an influence on others and keeps the sustainability transformation process going. Three different kinds of key actors

• Public
o Have power through moral legitimacy
o Think Greenpeace
• Political
o National governments and supranational organizations
o Think EU
• Market
o Influences the whole value chain in a market
o They play a crucial role in the diffusion of socio-ecological solutions in the market

What are the fives steps involved in developing a sustainability marketing strategy? Briefly describe each step – p. 148 figure 6.2
1. Screening Sustainability Issues and Actors – Public attention on any issues go through a cycle of five steps (issue-attention cycle)
– Pre-problem – the problem exists in the society or the environment but has not yet attracted much public attention.
– Discovery – some critical and newsworthy incidents or development occur.
– Solution – Public attention creates pressure on politicians to do something and solve the problem.
– Decline – as the difficulties and costs of tackling the problem become evident, the public attention to the issue wanes.
– Post-problem
The length of the issue-attention cycle and the timing of its different stages may vary.

• Indirect Sustainability Marketing Transformation Processes
Scientific issues of interest initially only to experts and enthusiasts evolve into media issues, which turn into public issues and then into political issues. Some socio-ecological problems are solved by setting standards, which are enforced by law. Other are addressed through market-based approaches and by setting the price right, that is by offering economic incentives to producers and consumers to behave in a more socially and ecologically way.

• Direct Sustainability Marketing Transformation Processes
An ecological or social problem usually goes through the issue-attention cycle and the political process before it begins to influence markets and marketers. This indirect transmission of concern from the public via policy and politics to the market may take years to occur, but in some cases pressure for sustainability marketing transformation processes goes directly from the public to the market.

2. Segmenting Sustainability Markets – segmenting a market allows marketers to cope better with the diversity of consumers and their behaviours, to focus efforts on serving those segment with the greatest potential for success, and to vary their different market offerings to suit the needs of different segments.
– Geographic
– Demographic
– Behavioural – based on their use of or response to sustainable products.
– Psychographic

3. Introducing Sustainability Innovations – If marketing is to contribute to a transformation to more sustainable society, it will require new sustainable product and service innovation to satisfy customer needs. There are four different types of sustainable innovations;
– The first type focus on the improvement of existing products.
– The second represent alternative technologies to existing problem.
– The third applies existing knowledge to new market areas.
– The fourth is probably the most fundamental contribution to sustainable development. It goes beyond product innovations, and refers to the level of entire systems. Ex sustainable mobility systems and electric cars

4. Positioning Sustainable Products – Finding a new and distinctive position in a market can be challenging for a company, and in many markets there is an opportunity to establish a position as the most sustainable, ethical or greenest product. There are four options to position sustainable products;
– First the company puts focus on the socio-ecological value adds, which captures a dominant position over performance and price. The company focus on the benefits for the natural and social environment instead of the individual benefits.
– Second option is to put equal emphasise on performance, price and socio-ecological aspects.
– Third is to communicate the socio-ecological value added as an integral part of product quality.
– Fourth is to refrain from communicating environmental and social benefits. (Consumer can be sceptical)

5. Partnering with Sustainability Stakeholders

The model seeks to identify those parties in the marketing environment whose behaviour can potentially affect the interest of the company, or towards whom the company owes some form of social obligation.

Macro Environment
➢ Demographic Environment – is about the human population in terms of size, density, location, age, gender and other statistics, such as income.

➢ Socio-Cultural Environment – culture refers primarily to how society expresses itself collectively through shared knowledge, learning communication and the arts. Sustainability issues are increasingly reflected in the cultural landscape in ways that influence public and political opinion and consumer response. The popularity of wildlife documentaries can all increase social awareness and concerns about sustainability.

➢ Technological Environment – The technological environment changes rapidly.

➢ Political Environment – Sustainability marketing decisions are strongly affected by development in the political environment.

➢ Economic environment – Influences the short-term viability of firms and their marketing strategies, and the long-term prospect for the transition to a more sustainability economy.

How do you define sustainable products and services? What are the main characteristics of them?
“Products an services as offerings that satisfy the needs and significantly improve the socio-ecological performance along the whole life cycle”

Six characteristics

• Customer satisfaction
• Dual focus
o Focus on both environmental and social aspects
• Life cycle orientation
o From cradle to grave
• Significant improvements
o Worthwhile contribution to socio-ecological issues
• Continues improvements
o Continues improvements along with the changes in customer needs
• Competing offers
o Be better then the competitors

What are the different kinds of sustainable services?
Different kind of labels

• Organic food
• MSC labeled fish
• FSC labeled products
• Fair trade products

What is a sustainable brand?
Products and services that are branded to signify to the consumer a form of special added value in terms of socio-ecological benefits.

Don’t need to describe what a brand is you should know this.

What does sustainability marketing myopia mean? How can companies overcome this?
In the nineteenth century there was a great era for railroads. At the time no other transportation could compete with the railroad for speed, durability and economy. But in the twentieth century the automobiles and planes came into the picture. Leading to many of the railroad companies ending in bankruptcy.

Because they suffered from marketing myopia, which means an excess focus on the product/service instead on focusing on the costumer solution.

Therefore companies need to complement the traditional marketing mix whit the sustainable marketing mix the four C’s.

There are four sustainability brand development strategies, describe them. – p. 190. Figure 7.4 Brand name/Product category
Once a sustainable brand is launched in the market there are different options for developing it further.

• Line extension Existing/Existing
o Introduction to additional items in a giving product category under the same sustainability brand name
• Sustainability brand extension Existing/new
o Involves the use of a successful sustainability brand to launch new or modified products in a new category
• Multi sustainability brands New/existing
o Imply that a company has two ore more sustainability brands in the same product category
• New sustainability brands
o Creation of a new brand and in new product category

What is the specific communications objectives might a campaign for sustainable products or service have?
• Generation awareness – a product will not succeed if the consumer is not aware of it.
• Informing consumers about products and their availability.
• Reminding consumers about a product.
• Persuading consumers to try a new product.
• Reassuring consumer in the face of direct or implied criticism of a product and reassure them that past purchases of the product were sensible choices.
• Motivating consumer to respond
• Rewarding through the provision of direct benefits for past custom and loyalty or for other behaviours.
• Connection with consumer through relationship-building activities
How can direct mail companies reduce their environmental impacts and the negative connotation of “junk mail”
The concept of direct mail is a target for environmental activist campaigns and or grumbling by many householders thus to the junk mail. At the same time it’s one of the major communication tolls used.
Reduce by

• Making sure that the mail are right targeted
• Change the used paper to recycled or produced in sustainable factories
• Move from oil-based to vegetable printing inks
• Use hybrid mail – distribution true internet

What are the three basic types of appeal that a sustainability-marketing message aimed at consumer can apply?
• Rational appeals
o Targets the consumers self-interest
• Emotional appeals
o Seek to make an emotional connection with the consumer
• Moral appeals
o Aim to engage with consumers right and wrong
What are the four components of McDonagh’s concept of sustainable communication?
A holistic approach – can also be applied to societal aspects

• Ecological trust
o Built to reverse the trend of towards a loss of confidence in business and business leadership and the resulting crisis of ecological legitimation
• Ecological access
o Allowing stakeholders access to the organization
o Openness
• Ecological Disclosure
o Be honest
o Tell the consumers what is happening
• Ecological dialogue
o With stakeholders to gain trust, listen to them and their concerns

What is green washing and which seven sins can lead to it?
Setting a front about something that your not. For example car companies that plants a tree for every car that the sell. Controversial since they contribute to the global warming.

The seven sins

• Hidden trade off – Electronics that contain hazardous material or papers that may come from sustainable harvested woods and then transported across continents
• No proof –
• Vagueness – Products claiming to be 100% natural but still contains hazardous substances
• Irrelevance – e.g. Products claiming to be CFC free when CFC was banned 20 years ago
• Fibbing – e.g. Products falsely claiming to be certified
• Lesser of two evils – e.g. Organic cigarettes
• Worshipping false labels – Products that give a false impression of a third-party

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