Survey Capter 1 Outline Essay
People were believed to have crossed a Boring Strait into the Americas 14,000 years ago- there were 75 million Europeans and by 1500 there were 10 million in the late 1 5th century, many people came to the Americas and Americans – brought diseases that started to kill a lot of people that weren’t immune to the diseases- Conquistadores were able to dominate because the empires were becoming weak from low population 1 . America Before Columbus – at first people lived as hunters and gatherers, but then had agriculture – civilizations were then built and were as varied as they were in Europe a.
The Civilization of the South the Incas built an empire in Peru and developed a complex political system and had roads that connected the many tribes o the Mayans in Mexico had a written language, calendar, advanced agricultural system and a numerical system o the Aztec were the Mayans successors and had a harsh religion o their economies were agriculture based, but they had big cities with huge buildings and temples that were beautiful b. The Civilizations of the North o people living in Canada and the U. S. Ad complex societies, but they weren’t as massive as the Mayans, Incas or Aztec that were hunting, gathering and fishing eased (seals, salmon, moose, caribou)o other communities were agriculturally based and some even had irrational canals and substantial towns with pueblo houses o in the east there was a big food surplus so many people lived there o people also farmed along the Mississippi River valley and grew corn and grains o Northeast agriculture societies would only stay at a place for 4 years at a time o the 3 main Indian societies were the Iroquois, Algonquin and the Muskegon o Indian tribes usually stuck to themselves even when threatened by whites c. Tribal Cultures native Americans were at the beginnings of sedentary agriculture and were starting to create complex societies with religion, population growth and clothing o religion was very important to them and was usually represented in nature o usually men and women would have specific tasks, such as farming, hunting and cooking that differed in each tribe, however women played an important role in the social and economic aspect of their societies 2.
Europe Looks Westward before the 1 5th century during the Middle Ages in Europe there wasn’t much interest in exploration because there wasn’t that much of a need for it – interest in exploration changed in the late 1 5th century a. Commerce and Nationalism o the reason for looking for new land was a population Rexroth and growth o landlords wanted resources from distant overseas land, so merchants and sailors started exploring at longer distances instead of the pope being the head, monarchs started coming into power and wanted to grow their kingdoms by conquering other lands o in the late 15th century, many of the monarchs were on a race to find the quickest maritime route to Asia and the first to do so was the Portuguese with Prince
Henry the Navigator o other explorers kept building off of each other’s progresses and eventually made it to Asia b Christopher Columbus o ever since Columbus was little he wanted to cross the Atlantic to Asia by going west, but he didn’t realize that there was another continent in between o Spain’s new monarchs decided to support Columbus when Portugal didn’t Columbus left Spain in August 1492 and ten weeks later thought he made it to Japan, but it really was the Bahamas and then reached Cuba, but he thought it was China o on the third voyage in 1468, he realized that he had found another continent o when Columbus died he didn’t get much credit for hat he had done because Emerging Vesuvius wrote a detailed book about the New World and got creditor Columbus was a very religious man and thought finding the New World was his mission and his plan for life o Spain soon after became the leading seafaring nation above Portuguese with Ferdinand Magellan(1 519-1522) and Visas De Balboa c. Conquistadores o Spain decided that the New World was a new place for wealth rather than an obstacle and claimed the whole New World except for present-day Brazil o in 1 518,
Cortes conquered the Aztec after one assault because they gave the Indians small- pox o the thought of silver in Mexico brought people like Francisco Bizarre who conquered the Incas and opened up South America (1532-1538) o Hernandez De Soot was also the first to cross the Mississippi (1539-1541) o the conquistadores are remembered for how brutal they were to the Indians d. Spanish America o Spain created a vast new empire in the Americas o the first stage was discovery and exploration and the second was conquistadores and the last stage was the ordinance of exploration o the mines Spain had in the Americas produces 10 times the gold and silver of the rest of the world o other Spaniards came to create agricultural communities and towns o the Catholic Church made Spain make all of their territories strictly Catholic the most common settlement by 17th century was missions e. Northern Outposts o the first U. S. Talented from Spain was in 1565 at SST, Augustine, Florida and was a mission center o Spaniards began claiming lands from the pueblo Indians around New Mexico and started making them pay tribute o Neonate gave out encompass, which was for Indian labor the Indians and Spaniards relationships became greater over time and many Indians ended up converting to Christianity o Spain got their money from cattle and sheep, not gold o in 1680, the pueblos revolted and they kept doing their own rituals, so the Spanish tried to bring missions to reconvert them the pueblo Indians ended up driving the Spanish out of Santa Fee, killing hundreds of European settlers and drove the Spanish away o instead of continuing to fight with the Indians in New Mexico, the Spanish decided to take away the encomia and became tolerant towards them o later on intermarriage between Indians and Spaniards was happening f. The Empire at High Tide o by the end of the 16th century, Spain claimed most of the land in the New World o Spain had some independent forms of governance that were separate from the monarchs, but the monarchs came back during the late 16th century o Spain focused on mining gold and silver, while Britain focused on agriculture o to stop pirates, Spain only used a couple ports at specific times of the year o Europeans in British, Dutch and French colonies quickly overpopulated the natives, but in Spanish colonies they usually only made up the ruling class g.
Biological and Cultural Exchanges o there became many different races in the colonies, especially in the north o Europeans brought many diseases like small-pox and mumps that wiped out a good many Native Americans o some places even became extinct of Native Americans because of the diseases o many natives also died and were killed because they were thought as savages o conquistadores were brutal towards them in war because they wanted to dominate and control them and didn’t want anything getting in their way of spreading Christianity o Europeans also brought new crops (sugar, bananas), mommies livestock and horses o the natives showed Europeans new farming techniques and crops, such as corn and potatoes o there was a big exchange and mixture of Indian and European cultures, especially the language and faith o with so few European women, European men would marry native women, especially in Spanish colonies o intermarriage was also seen as “labor recruitment” and forms of alliance o natives were usually forced to work in mines for certain periods of time, but they were also sold into slavery o with the decline of natives, Europeans started bringing in African slaves h. Africa and America most of African slaves came from Guiana o most slaves were civilized in well-developed political and economic systems, but were seen as uncivilized o northern Africa traded things like ivory with the Mediterranean and many turned Islam o many places in south Africa weren’t complex and only consisted of villages, however they created extensive trade with the world o most Africans were sedentary people, but others were fisherman, hunters and gatherers, or raised livestock o many African societies were matrilineal, where women would participate in almost everything except hunting and fishing o many
Africans were either Islamic or worshipped their ancestors o the first class consisted of nobles and priests o the second class consisted of artisans, farmers and traders o the third class was slaves that would only have a bondage for a few years and their children wouldn’t be born into their bondage o the slave trade began in the 15th century, but became the dominant force of labor in the 18th century o however in the 16th century, when sugar plantations and farms became huge, slaves were brought anywhere from the Americas to the Caribbean and to South America 3. The Arrival of the English John Cabot followed the Spanish to the new world only 5 years later in 1497 – it took the English about have a century before they formed colonies a.
The Commercial Incentive o the English had dreams about making the New World a utopian-type society o people of Tudor England suffered from wars and religious strife because farm lands were being transformed into land for raising sheep and wool, which caused unemployed tenants roaming the country Enclosure Movement: government passed laws to try and give tenants Jobs, but didn’t work most farmers became sheep herders, which caused a shortage on food o charter impasses were started when merchants came together to trade their cloths with a particular region, which had great profit of exotic goods o mercantilism was growing and meaner that a nation’s people should do whatever they can to grow the nations wealth, not their own; thought there was a finite amount of wealth in the world o created competition because countries would cut off certain ports and open others o having colonies allowed a country to take the resources they needed from that land o colonies became necessary for certain resources and profit, but also gave poverty- stricken and unemployed peoples a place to go b. The Religious Incentive o the colonies were also used for religious reasons, especially from the English Reformation including Martin Luther o John Calvin also founded Calvinist, which stated that everyone is predestined, but there is a way to know depending on the life you lived o Calvinist created the Hugeness in France and the Puritans in England o the English Reformation was when King Henry VII cut off his country ties from the pope (1529) o Henrys successor and daughter, (Bloody) Mary went back to the pope and persecutes people who didn’t return to Catholicism, but then her daughter
Elizabeth broke away from the pope o many people didn’t agree with the new Church of England o Puritans were the people who tried to “purify’ the church again o separatists were people like the Puritans and Quakers who had their own congregations; Anglican services and taxes to the church o other Puritans tried to reduce the power of the bishops and change the clergy, but the leaders wouldn’t respond o King James I about cut off Puritans by granting benefits to Catholics, such as charters c. The English in Ireland o from asses-asses the English started colonies in Ireland around Dublin o Englishman thought the Irish were savages and thought they should be destroyed or isolated o Sir Humphrey Gilbert was a leader off colony and when Irish rebellions began, he beheaded and killed many Irish soldiers because he thought they were inhuman o because of the Irish, in other colonies, the English tried to distance themselves from the natives by making their own cities and towns d.
The French and the Dutch in America o England’s rivals in colonies in the 16th century was the French o the French created close ties with the natives, unlike the English who stayed close to the coast ND only traded with them o the natives traded fur with the French mainly because of their relationships with one another o from the fur trade, the French were able to create alliances and trade and military centers o in the early eh century, the Dutch were one of the leading trade nations who traded with Americas, Africa and Asia o Henry Hudson (Dutch) that sailed a river thought to reach the Pacific and even though it didn’t, the Dutch were able to claim the land the Dutch West India Company traded along the Hudson, Delaware and Connecticut rivers e. The First English Settlements the first colony was in 1607 at Jamestown, Virginia even though Europeans had made previous attempts at starting colonies o in the asses and asses, the English sea dogs conquered the Spanish Armada and became the best Ana in the world o Sir Gilbert Humphrey was granted a patent in 1578 from Elizabeth I to gain as much land he could in 6 years and he founded Newfoundland in 15830 Humphrey was lost at sea and never found when looking for a military post f.
Ranked o Raleigh was granted the same thing as Humphrey and came back to Europe with the news of an island the natives called Ranked Raleigh decided to call and claim hat land Virginia for the Virgin Queen” but Elizabeth didn’t finance him o Raleigh got his cousin, Sir Richard Greenville to start a colony on Ranked and he did, but then came back to Europe o Sir Francis Drake went to Ranked and brought back the colonists o Raleigh brought more colonists to Ranked in 1587 and when John White left and came back after three years, it was deserted o no one knows anything about what happened to the colonists o when James I took the throne, Raleigh was accused of plotting against the king and was imprisoned for a decade o Raleigh successors tried to resettle the colonies in Availing