Sun Test Astronomy

In a Sunspot, this acts like a “plug” that stops the normal, upward convective flow
Strong magnetic field
A neutron is:
The neutral massive object in the nucleus of an atom
By mass, about ___ percent of the Sun is Hydrogen
Which statements about Sunspots is/are correct?
(All of the Above)
Who was the first astronomer to observe Sunspots?
This is the outermost portion of the Sun’s atmosphere, that can only be seen during a total solar eclipse. It is the hottest portion of the solar atmosphere.
Does the Sun rotate as a solid?
No, points near the equator rotate in the shortest period of time
Why do Earth seasons occur?
Tilt of the Earth allows for revolutions that cause the Earth to have areas closer to the Sun’s energy at different times of the year
Energy is transported from the Sun to the Earth via ___.
The Sunspot Cycle is how long?
11 years
Temperature of the Sun at the center is about ___.
15 Million K
A modern hypothesis that fits the data for the Sunspot cycle:
Relies on changing magnetic field of the Sun
Fundamentally, solar energy comes from:
Nuclear Fusion
The surface temperature of the Sun is about ___.
6,000 K
The nuclear process by which electrical energy is produced on Earth is ___.
Convection of thermal energy occurs in ___.
Both gases and liquids
How long is the magnetic solar cycle?
10 years
The solar wind is ___.
Material flowing from the Sun out into space
This refers to the very small number of Sunspots observed on the Sun’s surface during the period 1645-1715.
Maunder Minimum
When a star is hydrostatic equilibrium ___.
Downward forces on each layer are balanced by upward force, so the star neither expands nor contracts
The Sun’s magnetic poles change polarity every ___.
11 years
The equatorial regions of the Sun rotate ___.
With a shorter period than regions near its poles
An electron is ___.
The negatively charged object that circles an atom’s nucleus
These are huge events in which hot coronal gas is suddenly ejected into space at speeds of hundreds of km/s.
These are solar phenomena that are sources of particles traveling out into the solar system from our Sun.
(All of the Above)
The strength of the magnetic field in the region surrounding a sunspot is ___ than that in the Sunspot.
Close up photos of the Sun show “loops” above its visible surface. Astronomers call these ___.
The Sun’s diameter is about ___.
110 times that of Earth
The Sun’s mass is how many times larger than Earth’s?
An elementary particle that has little or no rest mass and no charge, but carries energy away from a nuclear reaction is called what?
A positron is ___.
A positively charged electron
What causes Granulation?
Convection of material near the surface
The turbulent magnetic field of the Sun causes explosive flare-ups called ___, which occur mostly during Sunspot maxima.
Solar Flares
Gravitation was once used to explain the source of the Sun’s energy. What new data caused this theory to be abandoned?
A new value for the age of the Sun
What causes Prominences, Solar Flares, and CMEs?
Twisted magnetic field lines that suddenly release, sending out a huge amount of energy
Nuclear Fusion describes ___.
4 hydrogen atoms, fusing to become 1 helium atom
Sunspots are ___.
Cooler and darker than surrounding regions
Sunspots ___.
Rotate around the Sun with periods that depend on where they are located
If the rate of fusion reactions in the Sun increased, ___.
The sun would decrease in size, and the temperature of the Sun’s core would increase
Coronal Mass Ejections ___.
(All of the Above)
The number of Sunspots ___.
Changes with a cycle of about 11 years
A proton is ___.
The positively charged massive object in the nucleus of an atom
The amount of energy that strikes the Earth’s surface is strongest at the equator. Why is this?
(All of the Above)
Deuterium is ___.
Form of Hydrogen, with one neutron and one proton
Deep within the Sun, the pressure is ___.
Greater than near the surface
Which phenomena are associated with solar flares?
The visible surface of the Sun is called the ___.
Which of the following shows the layers of the Sun correctly from inner to outer?
Core, Radiative, Convective, Photosphere, Chromosphere, and Corona
In the solar interior, energy is transferred by ___.
Radiation and Convection
What keeps the Sun from collapsing due to its strong gravitational field?
Heat that results from fusion reactions at the core
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