Sumamrising Chapter 1-5 Flashcard

Chapter 1

What is chemical Analysis

  • Chemical Analysis

Identification of chemicals present in a substance or the measurement of their concentration.

  • Concentration

Measure of how much solute is dissolved in a quantity of solution.

  • Qualitative Analysis

Process of finding what chemicals are present in the substance.

  • Quantitative Analysis

Process of finding how much chemical is present.
Chapter 2
Analysis by mass

Gravimetric Analysis

Quantitative analysis of substances based on the measurement of mass.
Mole
Unit used for counting particles. One mole is a standard amount of substance.
Avagadro’s Number
6.02×10^23
How to find:
Moles, Mass, Molar Mass
Moles = Mass/Molar mass
Mass = Moles x Molar mass
Molar mass = refers to periodic table
General gas equation
PV = nRT
Pressure
1 atmosphere = 760 mmHg = 101325 Pa = 101.3 kPa
Volume
1000 mL = 1L
Temperature
Temp in K = temperature in *c+273
Molar volume of gas
STP- 22.4 mol-1
SLC- 24.5 Lmol-1

n= V/Vm

Empirical Formula
Simple whole number ratio of atoms present ina compound.
Chapter 3
Volumetric Analysis

Concentration

Measure of the amount of solute expressed in molar conc referred to as Molarity.
How to find concentration
C=n/V
Standard Solution
Accurately known concentration
Primary Standards
Substances that are so pure that the amount of substance in mol can be accurately from their mass.
volumetric Analysis
Reacting a measured volume of a standard solution with a measured volume of the solution of unknown concentration.
End point
Titration at which the indicator changes colour.
Aliquot
Volume measured out by the pipette.
Equivalence point
point during the titration when the solutions have been mixed in the mole ratio
Titre
The volume of solution delivered by the burette.
Molecular formula
gives the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of a compound.
Limiting reactant
reactant that is completely consumed.
Chapter 4
Analysing Acids and Bases

Acids

proton donors
Base
Proton acceptors
Acid
Acid base reaction
involve transfer of proton from an acid to a base.
Conjugate acid base pair
Substances that only differ by one proton.
Strong bases
Weak bases
bases that readily accepts protons
bases only accepts protons to a limiting extent.
pH
pH= -log[h30+]
Back titration
A technique used when an acid or base is too weak to be analysed by direct titration.
Chapter 5
Analysing Oxidants and reductants

Oxidation
Reduction

Oxidation- loses electrons (OIL)
Reduction- gains electrons (RIG)
Oxidising agents or oxidants
substances that cause oxidation to occur.
Reducing agents or reductants
Substances that cause reduction to occur.

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