Structure of Atoms Flashcard

Mass
The property that reflects the quantity of matter within a sample.
Atom
The basic unit of a chemical element
Element
A substance that can not be broken down by chemical means.  They are defined by the number of protons they possess
Proton
A particle in the nucleus of an atom, with a positive charge of +1 and a mass of 1
Neutron
A non-charged particle, found in the nucleus of an atom, with the same mass as a proton
Electron
A negatively charged particle, with a charge of -1, it acts as the primary carrier of electricity
Compound
A substance that results from the combination of two or more different chemical elements
Molecule
A group of atoms linked together by sharing electrons in a chemical bond.  It is the smallest part of a compound that can participate in a chemical reaction
Chemical Bond
A force by which atoms or ions are bound in a molecule or crystal
Covalent Bond
A chemical bond formed between two atoms when they share electrons in pairs, so that each atom provides half of the electrons to the bond
Ionic Bond
A chemical bond formed between two oppositely charged ions when one atom transfers electrons to another atom
Ions
An electrically charged atom, or group of atoms, the electrical charge of which results when a neutral atom (or group of atoms) loses or gains one or more electrons during a chemical reaction.
Cation
An atom that has lost an electron, resulting in a positive charge
Anion
An atom that has gained an electron, resulting in a negative charge
Hydrogen Bond
A weak chemical bond formed through a hydrogen atom
Polar Covalent Bond
A type of covalent bond between two atoms in which electrons are shared unequally.  One end of the molecule has a slightly negative charge and the other end has a slightly positive charge

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