Stone Age Europe
Sittard (Netherlands), c. 4000 B.C.E.
Langweiler longhouse (Germany), c. 6500-4000 B.C.E.
Neolithic village (Wasserburg, Germany), c. 1000 B.C.E.
Iron-age village (Feddersen, Germany), c. 100 B.C.E.
Skara Brae (Scotland), c. 2000 B.C.E.
Carnac (France), c. 2000 B.C.E.
Kostromskaya (Russia), c. 6000 B.C.E. (barrow)
Cromlech dolmen (Tinfil, Wales), c. 3000 B.C.E. (dolmen)
Barrow (West Kennet, England), c. 3600 B.C.E. (gallery grave)
New Grange (Ireland), c. 2500 B.C.E. (passage grave)
Ggantija (Malta), c. 2000 B.C.E.
Great Horse, Sussex Down, c. 3000 B.C.E.
Avebury circle (England), c. 3000 B.C.E.
Stonehenge (England), c. 2750-1500 B.C.E.
wattle and daub
a material formerly or traditionally used in building walls, consisting of a network of interwoven sticks and twigs covered with mud or clay.
At its simplest, a round barrow is a hemispherical mound of earth and/or stone raised over a burial placed in the middle. Beyond this there are numerous variations which may employ surrounding ditches, stone kerbs or flat berms between ditch and mound. Construction methods range from a single creation process of heaped material to a complex depositional sequence involving alternating layers of stone, soil and turf with timbers or wattle used to help hold the structure together.
A gallery grave is a form of megalithic tomb built primarily during the Neolithic Age in Europe in which the main gallery of the tomb is entered without first passing through an antechamber or hallway. There are at least four major types of gallery grave (complex, transepted, segmented, and wedge-shaped), and they may be covered with an earthen mound (or “tumulus”) or rock mound (or “cairn”).
a large stone that forms a prehistoric monument (e.g., a menhir) or part of one (e.g., a stone circle or chamber tomb).
a horizontal support of timber, stone, concrete, or steel across the top of a door or window.
In architecture, a post-and-lintel or trabeated system refers to the use of horizontal beams or lintels which are borne up by columns or posts. The name is from the Latin trabs, beam; influenced by trabeatus, clothed in the trabea, a ritual garment.
a tall upright stone of a kind erected in prehistoric times in western Europe.
A trilithon (or trilith) is a structure consisting of two large vertical stones (posts) supporting a third stone set horizontally across the top (lintel). It is commonly used in the context of megalithic monuments.
cromlech or henge
a cromlech is a circle of standing stones, a henge is a prehistoric monument consisting of a circle of stone or wooden uprights
megalithic tomb with a large flat stone laid on upright ones, found chiefly in Britain and France.
A vault formed by the piling of stone blocks in horizontal courses, cantilevered inward until the two walls meet in a pointed arch. No mortar is used. Cycladic art-The art of the Cycladic Islands in the Aegean sea; so called because the islands circle the island Delos.
a prehistoric tomb with a long stone corridor leading to a burial chamber covered by a great tumulus (newgrange)
a solid support designed to sustain vertical pressure, in particular.
Tectonics in architecture is defined as “the science or art of construction, both in relation to use and artistic design.” It refers not just to the “activity of making the materially requisite construction that answers certain needs, but rather to the activity that raises this construction to an art form.”
a type of construction that uses rough, massive blocks of stone piled atop the other without mortar
mortise and tenon
a groove cut into stone or wood, called a mortise, that is shaped to receive a tenon, or projection, of the same dimensions