Stoichiometry and Other Misc Flashcard

Hydrogen Bonding
A specific bond which occurs only between hydrogen and other, fairly electronegative atoms. When Hydrogen bonds to a very electronegative atom, like Fluorine, it basically loses its electron and so it becomes very positively charged. It now interacts strongly with the negatively charged sides of other electronegative atoms.
Formula for calculating number of moles from number of particles

n=(N)/(Avogadro’s Constant)

Mass percent
Mass of an element in a compound expressed as a percent of the total mass of the compound.
Dilution (helpful formula)

When you dilute a solution, you can use the following formula to dtermine the new molarity

Molarity=M, Volume = V

M1V1=M2V2;

Boyle’s Law
p1v1=p2v2
Solute
Substance being dissolved
Avogadro’s constant
The number of particles in one mole (6.02 * 10^23)
Charle’s Law
V(1)/T(1)=V(2)/T(2)
Bronsted-Lowry definition of acids and bases
According to Bronsted-Lowry, acids donate protons and bases accept protons. These acids and bases always occur in pairs, and the second substance in a pairing is called the conjugate acid/base
Ideal Gas Law

PV=nRT

Where:

R= about 8.314 

Miscibility
Degree to which two liquids can mix in a homogeneous fashion
Dipole-Dipole attractions
When polar molecules orient themselves such that their positive ends are closer to the negative ends of the other particles. This produces higher boiling points than comparable non-polar intermolecular forces. Dipole-Dipole rarely occurs in the gaseous phase because the atoms are so far apart.

Find the conjugate acid/base pair in this reaction:

 

CH3COOH (arrows pointing back and forth) H+ (aq) + CH3COO

CH3COOH is the conjugate acid and CH3COO is the conjugate base
Percent composition
The relative mass of each element in a compound.
Kinetic molecular theory of gases (give the whole rule)

The theory defining the conditions for an "ideal gas":

1) Gases are made of particles whose size is negligible in comparison to the size of their container

2) Gas atoms or molecules do not show any significant intermolecular attraction or repulsion

3) Gas particles are in continuous and random motion, colliding with other particles and the container wall

4) Collisions between any gas particles are elastic, so no energy is dissipated

5) The average kinetic energy of gas particles is proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas, and is the same for all gases at that temperature 

Isotopic abundance
Relative amount in which each isotope is present in a given sample of an element.
Isotope

An atom with the same number of protons as a normal atom of that element but a different number of neutrons

For example, one of Hydrogen’s isotopes, deutirium, has an atomic weight of 2 but only 1 proton, meaning one neutron has been added to the hydrogen. It is still called hydrogen because of the number of protons. ;

Oxidation agent
The species reduced because it causes the other species to give up electrons
Molar mass
The mass of one mole of a substance
Solvent
Substance dissolving the solute
Empirical formula
Simplest formula, where all the subscripts are reduced to the simplest form. For example,
What is the molar mass of a 2.8 g sample of gas that occupies a volume of 3L at a temperature of 546 K and pressure 1.5 atm?

[email protected]= 3L (original volume) *(273 K/546 K) * (1.5 atm/1 atm)

Volume @ STP = 2.25 L

2.8g/2.25 L = 1.24 g/L (this is the density) at STP

molar mass= 1.24 g/L * 22.4 L/mol = 28 g/mol

NOTE the 22.4 comes from the rule that one mol of any gas will occupy 22.4 L at STP

The sample is most likely N2

Solution
Solvent + dissolved solute
Saturation
When no more solute can be dissolved into the solvent. For example, if one is dissolving sugar into boiling water, the water will be saturated when the sucrose remains in the solid phase and sinks to hte bottom of the container.
Definition of an alkene
A hydrocarbon with a carbon-carbon double bond
Equivalence point
Number of acid equivalents = # of base equivalents
Mass of carbon-12 in amu
12
Molarity
# moles of solute per L of solvent
% composition by mass in solutions
In solutions, you can just divide the weight of the solute by the weight of the solution to find the % composition by mass.
ATP in torr
760
Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases

Acids are a species producing H+ in an aqueous solution.

Bases are a species producing OHin an aqueous solution.

Formula for perchloric acid
HClO4
Law of definite proportions
the elements in a chemical compound are always present in the same proportions by mass
Average atomic mass
Weighted average of all the masses of the isotopes of the element adjusted for abundance
Formula for determining pH and formula for determining pOH

pH=-log[H+]=log(1/[H+])

pOH= -log [OH]

Oxidation
Wehn an atom LOSES electrons
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
P(t)=P(1)+P(2)+P(3)……
Reduction reaction
When an electron GAINS electrons
Oxidation number of Cl in HOCl
+1 (EXCEPTION)
How many F are required for the reduction of 1 mol of Ni2+ to Ni (s)
2 F, because 2 moles of electrons are required

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