Stoichiometry and Gas Law Exam Flashcard

Ammonium
NH4 +
Carbonate
C03 -2
Sulfate
SO4 -2
Phosphate
PO4 -3
Nitrate
NO3 –
Chlorate
ClO3 –
Acetate
C2H3O2 –
Hydroxide
OH –
Permanganate
MnO4 –
Chromate
CrO4 -2
An acid with an anion that ends in -ide
Hyrdo__ic acid (ex: HCl= hydrochloric acid)
An acid with an anion that ends in -ite
___ous acid (ex: HNO2=nitrous acid)
An acid with an anion that ends in -ate
____ic acid (HC2H3O2=acetic acid)
Solubility Rule #1
Salts with the alkali metals and ammonium are soluble
Solubility Rule #2
Most chloride, bromide, and iodide salts are soluble except when they contain Ag+, Pb+2, and Hg2 +2.
Solubility Rule #3
Most sulfate salts are soluble except for BaSO4, PbSO4, HgSO4, and CaSO4.
When zero is and isn’t a sig fig
Yes when it is in the middle of a number, no when it’s at the beginning of a number, and sometimes when at the end of a number (only with a decimal place or in scientific notation)
Sig Figs in multiplication and division
The final answer must have as many sig figs as the number with the lowest amount of sig figs that is not an exact number or conversion
Sig Figs in addition
The final answer goes as many digits as the number with the least digits place.
Volume of a gas at STP
22.4 L/mol
Actual yield
How much the product the reactants actually form
Theoretical yield
The amount of product that should be created according to stoichiometry.
Percent yield
actual yield divided by theoretical yield
Empirical formula
the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
Molecular formula
the exact formula of a molecule, giving the types of atoms and the numbers of each type.
The five classifications of reactions
Single replacement, double replacement, combination, decomposition, and combustion.
Combustion
With a metal, it makes an ionic compound. If there’s carbon, it makes carbon dioxide. If there’s hydrogen, it makes water.
Precipitation reaction
A double replacement where a cation falls in love with an anion.
If it’s soluble…
It precipitates out
Strong acids
HCl (Hydrochloric acid), HBr (hydrobromic acid), HI (hydroiodic acid), H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), H2NO3 (nitric acid), HClO4 (perchloric acid), HClO3 (chloric acid)
LEO GER
Less electrons oxidized, greater electrons reduced
Oxidation state rules
H is +/-1, O is -2 except when bonded with F, a pure element is 0, sum of all the oxidation sates of a polyatomic ion is equal to the total charge
Base
a compound that produces OH- when dissolved in water. It’s strong when with Group 1 or lower Group 2 metals
Spectator ions
ions not charged in the reaction
Combined gas law
(P1V1)/T1 = (P2V2)/T2
Ideal gas law
PV=nRT
R
R=0.0821 L*atm/mol*K
or 8.31 L*kPa/mol*K
or 62.4 L*torr/mol*K
Partial pressures
Pa+Pb+Pc=P total
Kinetic theory
The ideal and combined gas laws go under this.
Assumptions of kinetic theory
Gas particles are much smaller than the space between them so their volume is negligible, and gas particles are neither attracted nor repelled to one another.
Non-ideal gases
Ions are non-ideal, very polar molecules are somewhat non-ideal, and nonpolar molecules are the most ideal. Large molecules are more non-ideal and smaller particles (like noble gases) are more ideal
Real gas rules
if particles are attracted to each other, volume smaller than expected. If particles too close together, their mass not negligible, V bigger than expected.
If a compound has a larger molar mass, it will effuse out…
Slower

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