# Stoichiometry and Gas Law Exam Flashcard

 Ammonium
 NH4 +
 Carbonate
 C03 -2
 Sulfate
 SO4 -2
 Phosphate
 PO4 -3
 Nitrate
 NO3 –
 Chlorate
 ClO3 –
 Acetate
 C2H3O2 –
 Hydroxide
 OH –
 Permanganate
 MnO4 –
 Chromate
 CrO4 -2
 An acid with an anion that ends in -ide
 Hyrdo__ic acid (ex: HCl= hydrochloric acid)
 An acid with an anion that ends in -ite
 ___ous acid (ex: HNO2=nitrous acid)
 An acid with an anion that ends in -ate
 ____ic acid (HC2H3O2=acetic acid)
 Solubility Rule #1
 Salts with the alkali metals and ammonium are soluble
 Solubility Rule #2
 Most chloride, bromide, and iodide salts are soluble except when they contain Ag+, Pb+2, and Hg2 +2.
 Solubility Rule #3
 Most sulfate salts are soluble except for BaSO4, PbSO4, HgSO4, and CaSO4.
 When zero is and isn’t a sig fig
 Yes when it is in the middle of a number, no when it’s at the beginning of a number, and sometimes when at the end of a number (only with a decimal place or in scientific notation)
 Sig Figs in multiplication and division
 The final answer must have as many sig figs as the number with the lowest amount of sig figs that is not an exact number or conversion
 The final answer goes as many digits as the number with the least digits place.
 Volume of a gas at STP
 22.4 L/mol
 Actual yield
 How much the product the reactants actually form
 Theoretical yield
 The amount of product that should be created according to stoichiometry.
 Percent yield
 actual yield divided by theoretical yield
 Empirical formula
 the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
 Molecular formula
 the exact formula of a molecule, giving the types of atoms and the numbers of each type.
 The five classifications of reactions
 Single replacement, double replacement, combination, decomposition, and combustion.
 Combustion
 With a metal, it makes an ionic compound. If there’s carbon, it makes carbon dioxide. If there’s hydrogen, it makes water.
 Precipitation reaction
 A double replacement where a cation falls in love with an anion.
 If it’s soluble…
 It precipitates out
 Strong acids
 HCl (Hydrochloric acid), HBr (hydrobromic acid), HI (hydroiodic acid), H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), H2NO3 (nitric acid), HClO4 (perchloric acid), HClO3 (chloric acid)
 LEO GER
 Less electrons oxidized, greater electrons reduced
 Oxidation state rules
 H is +/-1, O is -2 except when bonded with F, a pure element is 0, sum of all the oxidation sates of a polyatomic ion is equal to the total charge
 Base
 a compound that produces OH- when dissolved in water. It’s strong when with Group 1 or lower Group 2 metals
 Spectator ions
 ions not charged in the reaction
 Combined gas law
 (P1V1)/T1 = (P2V2)/T2
 Ideal gas law
 PV=nRT
 R
 R=0.0821 L*atm/mol*Kor 8.31 L*kPa/mol*Kor 62.4 L*torr/mol*K
 Partial pressures
 Pa+Pb+Pc=P total
 Kinetic theory
 The ideal and combined gas laws go under this.
 Assumptions of kinetic theory
 Gas particles are much smaller than the space between them so their volume is negligible, and gas particles are neither attracted nor repelled to one another.
 Non-ideal gases
 Ions are non-ideal, very polar molecules are somewhat non-ideal, and nonpolar molecules are the most ideal. Large molecules are more non-ideal and smaller particles (like noble gases) are more ideal
 Real gas rules
 if particles are attracted to each other, volume smaller than expected. If particles too close together, their mass not negligible, V bigger than expected.
 If a compound has a larger molar mass, it will effuse out…
 Slower