States of Matter Flashcard

Particle Size
Gas particles are small and far apart. There are no significant attractive or repulsive forces between them.
Particle Motion
Particles are in constant, random motion. They move in straight lines until they collide. Collisions are elastic (no kinetic energy is lost).
Particle Energy
Mass and velocity determine the kinetic energy of the particle.
Temperature
Average kinetic energy.
Behavior of Gases based on Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Low densities, can be compressed/expanded, gases diffuse through a material from high to low concentration, gases with lower mass diffuse faster, and gases effuse through a small opening in the same way.
Graham’s Law of Effusion
(V1)/(V2) = Square root of (M2)/(M1) where V is velocity and M is the molar mass.
Gas Pressure is Measured in…
Force per unit area (pascal, kPa, psi, mm HG, inches Hg, torr, atm).
Gases exert pressure when…
They hit the sides of the container.
Atmospheric Pressure
The force of air particles.
Barometers and manometers are used to measure what respectively?
Air pressure and the pressure of any gas in a closed container.
Standard Pressure at 1atm and 0 Degrees Celsius is…
101.3 kPa or 760 mm Hg.
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
P Total = P1 + P2 + P3… where P equals amount of pressure.
Intra-molecular Forces
Attractive forces in ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds.
Intermolecular Forces
Forces of attraction between particles.
Dispersion Forces
Attraction between temporary dipoles formed by repelling electron clouds. Occurs between all particles and are stronger with more electrons.
Dipole-Dipole Forces
Attractions between opposite regions in polar molecules. Stronger than dispersion forces of equal sized particles.
Hydrogen Bonds
Dipole-dipole attraction when hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom. Is the strongest intermolecular force and explains properties of water like high boiling point and high surface tension.
Liquids volume and shape is…
Fixed and variable.
Liquid is how much more dense than gas?
1000 times more.
Liquids can be compressed how much?
Only a very small amount.
Viscosity
Measure of the resistance to flow, determined by intermolecular forces.
Surface Tension
Energy required to change the surface area.
Capillary Action
Movement of water because of cohesion and adhesion.
The intermolecular forces of solids are…
Strong.
Particles of solids move as…
Vibrations in a fixed location.
Crystalline Solids
Orderly arrangement of molecules.
Atomic Solids
Very low melting points (noble gases).
Molecular Solids
Medium melting points, soft (water, sugar).
Covalent Network Solids
Multiple covalent bonds, very high melting points, very hard (graphite, diamond).
Ionic Solids
Hard, brittle, high melting points (salt).
Metallic Solids
Positive metal ions in a sea or mobile electrons.
Amorphous Solids
No orderly arrangement (glass, rubber, plastic).
Vapor Pressure
Pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid.
Phase Diagrams
Shows phases at various temperatures and pressures.
Triple Point
Temperature and pressure where all phases coexist.

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