States of Matter Flashcard

Kinetic Energy
The energy of an object because it has motion.
Kinetic Theory
All matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion.
Assumptions from the Kinetic Molecular Theory for Gases
*Key Concept: The particles in a gas are considered to be small, hard spheres with insignificant volume.* *Key Concept: The motions of particles in a gas is rapid, constant and rapid.* *Key Concept: All collisions between particles of gas are perfectly elastic.*
Gas Pressure
A result from the force exerted by the gas per units of surface area on an object. *Key Concept: Gas pressure is the result of simultaneous collisions of billions of rapidly moving particles in a gas with an object.*
Vacuum
An empty sace with no particles and no pressure.
Atmospheric Pressure
The result of collisions of gas molecules in the air with objects.
Barometer
A device used to measure atmospheric pressure.
Pascal
The SI unit of pressure.
Standard Atmosphere (atm)
the pressure required to support 760 mm of mercury in a barometer at 25*C
Average Kinetic Energy and Kelvin Temperature
*Key Concept: The Kelvin Temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substance.
Model for Liquids
*Key Concept: The interplay between the disruptive motions of particles in a liquid and the attractions among particles determine the physical properties of a liquid.*
Vaporation
The conversion of a liquid to a gas.
Evaporation
When vaporization occurs to a liquid below its boiling point. *Key Concept: During evaporation, only those molecules with a certain minimum kinetic energy will evaporate.*
Vapor Pressure
*key Concept: In a system at constant vapor pressure, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the vapor and liquid. The system is in equilibrium because the rate of evaporation equals the rate of consdensaation of a gas.*
Boiling Point
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure of the liquid. *Key Concept: When a liquid is heated to a temperature at which particles throughout the liquid have enough kinetic energy to vaporize, the liquid begins to boil.*
Normal Boiling Point
The boiling point of a liquid at 101.3 kPa.(See table 13.2 page 395)
Model for Solids
*key Concept: The general properties of a solid reflect the orderly arrangement of their particles and the fixed locations of their particles.*
Melting Point
The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid.
Crystal Structure
*Key concept: The shape of a crystal reflects the arrangement of the particles within the solid.*
Allotropes
two or more differant molecuar forms of the same element in the same physical state.
Amorpous Solid
Lacks order in the internal structure.
Glass
A rigid set of inorganic molecules that have been heated and cooled without crystallizing.
Sublimation
The change of a solid to a gas without becoming a liquid. *Key Concept: Aublimation occurs in solids when the vapor pressures exceed atmospheric pressure near or at room temperature.*
Phase Diagram
The graph which shows the relationshp among the solids liquids and gasses of a substance in a sealed container. *Key Concept: The conditions of pressure and temperature at which two phases exist in equilibrium are represented by a line or curve on the graph.*
Triple Point
The point on a phase diagram at which all three phases exist in equilibrium.

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