SS8H11: Civil Rights

Herman Talmadge
segregationist Georgia Governor and U.S. Senator; son of Governor Eugene Talmadge

Benjamin Mays
president of Morehouse College and mentor to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

1946 Governors Race
also called the Three Governors Controversy; due to the death of the 1946 governor’s race winner Eugene Talmadge, three men had a legitimate claim to the office; the matter was settled by the Supreme Court and a special election in 1948

White Primary
tactic used by whites in Georgia to prevent blacks from voting in the Democratic primary; because Georgia was a one party state, this prevented African-Americans from having a voice in elections

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Supreme Court cases that struck down the policy of separate
but equal and mandated the desegregation of public schools

Martin Luther King, Jr.
important civil rights leader and winner of the Nobel Peace
Prize

1956 State Flag
controversial flag that flew over Georgia from 1956-2001; prominent Confederate Battle emblem

Albany Movement
organized civil rights protest led by the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, whose primary objective was to desegregate the city of Albany, Georgia, and the surrounding community

Civil Rights Act (1964)
federal legislation that forbade discrimination on the basis of race and sex in hiring, firing, and promotion

Hamilton Holmes
one of the first African-Americans to integrate the University of Georgia; became a successful doctor

Charlayne Hunter (Gault)
one the first African-Americans to integrate the University of Georgia; became a successful journalist

Maynard Jackson
first African-American mayor of a major southern city (Atlanta)

Lester Maddox
one of the last openly segregationist politicians in Georgia (Governor)

March on Washington
famous civil rights march led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; the
famous “I Have a Dream” speech was given at the march

Sibley Commission (1961)
investigation by lawyer John Sibley to determine what should be done about integration in the state; though 60% of Georgians claimed they would rather close the public schools than integrate, Sibley recommended that public schools desegregate on a limited basis

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
civil rights organization by college students that urged non-violent protests to gain integration; the group became more militant in the late 1960s

Andrew Young
important civil rights leader who served as U.S. ambassador to the
United Nations and Mayor of Atlanta; was also instrumental in bringing the 1996 Olympic Games to Atlanta