Sport management 1

Leisure as… (3)
Time – available i.e. after work, set time aside
Activity – enjoyment, pleasure, personal interest
State of mind – enjoyment, relaxation, satisfaction
Foundations of sport: ORIGINS
Leisure – time, activity, state of mind
Play and games
C’S concept of FLOW (part. theory)
Model outcomes: A.A.A.B.C.R.W
Overall: M.I.W.C.S.E.F
Challenges vs. skills
Apathy, arousal, anxiety, boredom, control, relax, worry
Mood, involvement, wish, challenge, skill, enjoyment, flow
Neulinger’s concept of MOTIVATION (part. theory)
Dependent on?
Model (3)
D: level of involvement; type of sport
M: job, work, leisure
R: Intrinsic; extrinsic
Self-determination (intrinsic rewards) (3)
Autonomy; competence; relatedness
History: early sport examples
Leisure; archery; spear throwing; running; wrestling; Ancient Olympic Games Greece
Sport provisions (4)
Resources, politics (spring bok tour), education, encouraged participation
Sport management define
(4) involved with (4) what of sport?
Sport related: BP
Study/practice of:
People; activities; businesses; organisations involvement..
Production, facilitation, promotion, organisation..
Sport related BUSINESS or PRODUCT
Overall development
(NZ sport development influences over time)
1) casual, leisure based
2) increased awareness of management and structure
3) implementing management
2 aspects developed
(NZ sport development influences over time)
Pre 1900 RESTRICTIONS and examples
(NZ sport development influences over time)
Saturday, public holiday, communal events ONLY.
No levels of ability (i.e. age, weight etc)
E.g. Horse racing, rowing, cricket
20th century DEVELOPMENTS
(NZ sport development influences over time)
Transportation; urban settlements; social values; institutional structures; formal (time, equipment, rules), spectator/participation opp, individual sports (fishing e.g.)
1950 – recent
(NZ sport development influences over time)
Car ownership – transport/car sports
Organisations: Ministry of Sport & Commonwealth Games
Sport structures overall
Sectors; social interactions; environmental factors;
Political – national building/identity
Economic – product consumption
Legal – involvement with legal system
Technological – resources, seizing sporting opportunities
Sport NZ role
– Goals
National agency; invest in sport organisations, world class employees (nutritionist, physiologists etc), partnerships w/ NZ sporting agencies
Goal: recreation and sport involvement; win medals; build capacity (local to HP)
Sport structure – SECTORS
Public – government owned and operated
Private – capital gain, non govt. companies/organisations
Non-profit – charities/organisations e.g. RSA, local clubs
Define economics
Concepts (4)
Scarcity & resource; goods & services 5; supply/demand.
Choice, cost, opportunity cost, scarcity.
Tourism, participation (equip. etc), national ID, Job opp
Supply and demand. E.g.?
Price and quantity curves. Sport e.g. buying a player
Externality (Finance & Ec)
Impact on 3rd parties: positive & negative
Economic impact assessment (6)
R. C. SD. T. M. I+J
Community residents > city council >
development subsidies> tourists/visitiors >
$$ spent locally > Income/jobs
Sport marketing define
Planning & Implementing activities to SATISFY customers
Branding; image association; approaches; tools; 4 P’s
4 P’s of marketing
Product; Price; Place (e.g. online, shops) ; Promotion (= positive image, awareness, purchase).
Also: marketing People; Public relations; Profit
Marketing approaches (2)
In: directly with sport e.g. athletes
Through: non-sport e.g. burger king, heineken
Key marketing TOOLS (5)
TV; radio; social media; printed media; signage
Unique; what does it stand for; combo of 4 P’s, great COMMUNICATION. Aim: customer loyalty
Marketing: Satisfying customers
Watching, playing, listening; merchandise, memorabilia, sporting goods
Sponsorship define
Exploiting opportunity (what company can’t do itself)
Benefits – both parties
Financial assistance
Tit for tat
Ethics, strategy, marketing
Sponsorship issues
Controversy (tobacco, alcohol); athlete behaviour
Ambush marketing define
Non-official sponsors attempt to align with sport
Benefits of sponsorship
Sales, corporate image, media & advertisement,
target new audiences, target specific revenue goods,
positive product association
Define CSR
Corporate Social Responsibility: Business/society relations. Ethical and accountable needs of society
CSR and sport
Two-way process (sport and comm. organisations). e.g. rugby teams visiting schools; recycling deeds
CSR benefits
Increased image; growing the game; increased revenue intake; growing community; health; social int; cultural understanding and integration; incr. enviro awareness
CSR issues
Communication, implementation, understanding, measuring, justifying
Types of CSR (4 responsibilities)
Legal – obeying laws
Ethical – right thing to do e.g. enviro friendly, fair wages
Philanthropic – Above & beyond. Effort to benefit society
CSR initiations
Charity establishments
Community service roles
Program development
Types of venues
Single purpose; multi purpose; indoor; outdoor; non-trad.
Venues & facilities associated elements
Location; Access; Transportation; Parking (enough? cost?); Seating (diff. options?); On-site services (toilets)
How venues and facilities fit into the MARKETPLACE?
Product; Buyers; Suppliers; Intermediaries
Venues and facilities issues
Funding; purpose built venues (Athens 2004), quality, pressure, risk mngment, alcohol policies, seating, crowd

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