Solutions Unit Flashcard

3 Identifying Characteristics of a pure substance
1. One kind of atom/matter
2. Cannot be decomposed into sim. subs.
3. definite phys./chem. props.
types of matter classified as a pure substance
1. elements
2. compounds
Heterogeneous mixture types
Colloid,Emulsion, Suspension
Homogeneous mixture types
alloy, amalgam, tincture
characteristics that make a mixture homogeneous
a solutions has a solvent and a solute and when the solute dissolves in the solvent it becomes homogeneous
Colloid
mixture consisting of tiny particles suspended in a liquid, hetero, MILK
suspension
spontaneously separates overtime (hetero) SAND & WATER
alloy
a substance made by melting 2+ elements together, at least one of them a metal (homo) BRONZE
emulsion
any mixture of 2+ immiscible liquids in which 1 liquid is dispersed in the other (hetero) OIL & VINEGAR DRESSING
tincture
medicinal mixture that contains alcohol (homo) MOUTHWASH
amalgam
an alloy of mercury (homo) DENTAL FILLINGS
Molarity
measure of concentration in mols of solute per liter of solution
3 factors that increase rate of dissolving
Mixing, Surface Area, Temperature
Temperature (Increasing dissolving)
solubility of solid increases as temp increases
Surface area (increasing dissolving)
surface area is increased when decreasing size of solute
Mixing (increasing dissolving)
brings fresh solvent into contact with undissolved solid
On a molecular level oil doesn’t mix with water why?
the oil cannot mix with the H20 because it is nonpolar and therefore doesn’t have a partial positive/negative charge and no pull so the polar water doesnt have anything to “latch onto”
Describe what is happeninng at the molecular level when salt dissolves water
The 2 H’s on the H20 are positive and the Cl on the salt is negative, and the O on the H20 is negative and the Na on the salt is postive so the opposite charges attract causing the ionic bond of NaCl to be broken
hydrochloric acid nomenclature
HCl (aq)
Nitric Acid (nomenclature)
HNO3
Sulfuric Acid (nomenclature)
H2SO4
Acetic Acid (nomenclature)
HC2H3O2
Strong vs. Weak Acid
Strong- completely disassociates in H20, forming H+ and an anion
Weak- doesn’t completely disassociate in H20 to give H+ and the anion
Strong vs. Weak base
Strong- disassociates 100% into the cation and OH-
Weak-do not furnish OH-ions by disassociation, instead, they react with H20 to generate OH- ions
Acids
Sour Tasting, Typically gases or liquids, donates H+ (donating a proton), reacts w/ metal to create hydrogen gas
Bases
Typically solid form, slippery in solution, conduct electricity, increases OH- in a solution, anything that accepts a proton
Titration (used for?)
determine the unknown concentration of a reactant

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