Solutions, Acids, Bases, and Salts Flashcard

What is a heterogeneous mixture?
A mixture in which the particles are not evenly spread throughout.
What is a suspension?
A mixture that particles are mostly evenly spread out through another substance.
What is a colloid?
A mixture made up of tiny particles, intermediate in size to a suspension and solution, that are suspended in a solid, liquid, or a gas.
What is an emulsion?
Any mixture of two or more imiscible liquids in which one liquid is dispersed in the other.
How is a solvent different from a solute?
A solute dissolves in the solvent.
How could you separate a miscible liquid?
By boiling it: The liquid with the lower boiling point would evaporate first, leaving the other liquid.
What is an alloy?
An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals.
Why is water the universal solvent?
Because it is a polar molecule. It’s structure of negative and positive atoms makes it pull substances apart (dissolving them).
What is meant by water being a polar molecule?
It means that water has separate positive and negative charges.
What do non-polar molecules do in water?
They do not dissolve?
Why does heat help things to dissolve?
Because it causes the atoms to move faster, causing more collisions and therefore, more dissolving.
What is solubility?
The ability of one substance to dissolve in another substance at a certain temperature and pressure.
What does it mean if something is highly concentrated?
There is a lot of solute in the solvent.
What is a saturated solution?
A saturated solution is a solution in which no more solute can be dissolved in it at that certain temperature and pressure.
What is a supersaturated solution?
A solution in which more solute has been dissolved into a saturated solution because the temperature and/or pressure has been changed.
How do you calculate Molarity?
M=mol/L
Describe acids.
Have a sour taste, are corrosive, can damage skin, and conduct electricity.
Describe bases.
Have a bitter taste, are slippery, can damage skin, and can conduct electricity.
What is an electrolyte?
A substance added to water that dissolves and can conduct an electric current.
Describe the pH scale.
0 is the most acidic.
7 is neutral.
14 is the least acidic.
Why do acids neutralize bases?
Because the hydronium ions react with the hydroxide ions to form water, a neutral substance.
What is titration?
Adding carefully measured amounts of one solution to another.
How does soap work?
Soap emulsifies oil and water, allowing them to be washed away, leaving the object clean.
How is a detergent different from a soap?
Detergents do not leave soap scum because it doesn’t form insoluble salts when they react with hard water.
How does an antacid work?
It neutralizes stomach acid (HCl).
What would happen if you mix bleach and ammonia?
It would form toxic chloramine gas.
What is hard water?
Water containing Magnesium, Iron, and Calcium.
How does an antioxidant work?
It protects whatever it is in contact with from reacting with water.
What would happen if you mix vinegar and baking soda?
CO2 would be released, causing an eruption.

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