Solutions – Chemistry Flashcard

Boiling point elevation
The temperature difference between a solution’s boiling point and a pure solvent’s boiling point
Brownian motion
The jerky, random, rapid movements of colloid particles that results from collisions of particles of the dispersion medium with the dispersed particles
Colligative property
a Physical property of a solution that depends on the number, but not the identity, of the dissolved solute particles; Example properties include vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, and freezing point depression
Colloids
heterogeneous mixtures containing particles larger than solution particles but smaller than suspension particles that are categorized according to the phases of their dispersed particles and dispersing mediums
Concentration
a quantitative measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
Freezing Point depression
The difference in temperature between a solution’s freezing point and the freezing point of its pure solvent
Heat of Solution
the overall enery change that occurs during the solution formation process
Henry’s Law
States that at a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid
insoluble
not able to be dissolved
immiscible
two or more substances that are not soluble in each other
miscible
two or more substances that are soluble in each other
Molality
the ratio of the number of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent; also known as molal concentration
Molarity
the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution; also known as molar concentration
Mole Fraction
the ratio of the number of moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of solute and solvation
osmosis
the diffusion of solvent particles across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of higher solvent concentration to an area of lower solvent concentration
osmotic pressure
the additional pressure needed to reverse osmosis
saturated solution
Contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure
Solubility
the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure
soluble
able to be dissolved; a solute must be soluble
solute
the substance being dissolved
solution
a homogenous mixture
Solvation
The process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution. Can only occur where and when the solute and solvent particles come in contact with each other.
solvent
the substance that dissolves the solute
Supersaturated solution
contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature
Suspension
A type of heterogeneous mixture whose particles settle out over time and can be separated from the mixture by filtration
Tyndall effect
The scattering of light by colloidal particles
unsaturated solution
Contains less dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution; has a further capacity to hold more solute
Vapor pressure lowering
the lowering of vapor pressure of a solvent by the addition of a nonvolatile solute to the solvent
Freezing Point depression
The difference in temperature between a solution’s freezing point and the freezing point of its pure solvent

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