Solutions – Chemistry Flashcard

Aqueous Solution
solution in which atleast 1 substance is dissolved in water
Solute
Substance that gets dissolved; present in smaller amount
Solvent
substance that gets dissolved; present in the larger amount
Solvation
When a solute particle is completely surrounded by solvent
Solubility Rule

Like dissolves like

-polar+polar=yes

-nonpolar+nonpolar=yes

-polar+nonpolar=no

 

Electrolytes
Substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water
Non-Electrolyte
Substances that don’t conduct electricity when dissolved in water
Concentration
Amount of substance in a given space
Molarity

Unit of concentration

Moles of solute per liters of solution

mol/L

% By Volume

(Volume of solute/volume of solution)x100%

;

% by Mass
(Mass of solute/mass of solution)x100%
Calibration Curve
A graph made from predetermined values used to figure out unknown values
Soluble

The ability to dissolve

state:aqueous

Insolube

Does not dissolve

state: solid

Complete Ionic Equation
Write the chemical equation so any ionic compound in any solution is represented
Net Ionic Equation
when you ONLY show the substances that are reacting or changing
Spectator Ions

ions that appear in aqueous solutions on each side of the equation

Dont actually react (just present)

Dilution
Decrease the proportion of Solute/solution
Dilution Equation
M1V1 = M2V2
Factors Affecting Solubility
Stirring, Solute/solvent composition, temperature, surface area of the dissolving particles
Stirring
Increase rate because increasing speed and force that the particles hit. Harder hit allows solvent to impact and surround the solute easier.
Temperature
Increasing temperature increasing the average kinetic energy of the particles hit harder and faster. easier for solvent to surround solute
Survace area of the dissolving particles

Want a large SA of solute exposed to the solvent since dissolving refers to solvents ability to surround solute

smaller pieces increase SA since more faces are exposed

Saturated Solution
A solution that contains the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved at that temp.
Unsaturated Solution
contains less solute than saturated solution
Super Saturated Solution
Contains more solute than it theoretically should be able to
Miscible
2 liquids completely dissolved in each other
Immiscible
2 liquids do not dissolve in each other
Colligative Properties
Depends on the number of particles (dissolved in soln) but NOT the type
Freezing Point Depression
When solute is added to solvent, the freezing point of the soln will be lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent.
Solute DISRUPTS the ORDER–>need to take out more energy to freeze
Boiling Point Elevation
When solute is added to solvent the BP of the solution will be higher than the BP of the pure solvent
Vapor Pressure Lowering
The VP of a solvent will be lower if solute is added because less will vaporize and so less gas is available to leave and exert pressure
FPD and BPE calcuations

^TF=KF x molality x pieces

^TB=KB x molality x pieces

Units for K= Degrees Celcius/molality

Molality

Moles of solute/ kg solvent

another unit for concentration

Henry’s Law

At a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid.

As P inc., S inc.

As temperature of a solution within a gas increases, solubility of a gas decreases

Equation for Henry’s Law
(S1/P1)=(S2/P2)
Suspensions

Mixtures from which particles settle out upon standing

Different than solution because particles are much larger and DO NOT stay suspended over time

Colloid

Heterogeneous mixtures with particles that range in size from 1 to 1000nm. Particles larger than those in solution but smaller then those in a suspension. Particles spread thoughout a dispersion medium

Tyndall effect

Tyndall Effect

Scattering of Visible Light

Colloids do this

Brownian Motion
collisions of material of molecules with dispersion medium with dispersed particles
Emulsion
Colloidial dispersion of a liquid in a liquid

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