Solutions – Chemistry Flashcard

solution
A homogenous mixture of two or more substances in a single physical state.
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture characterized by visibly different parts.
homogenous mixture
a mixture that does not have visibly distinguishable parts.
solvent
substance that does the dissolving.
solute
the substance that is dissolved.
soluble
Capable of being dissolved.
insoluble
incapable of being dissolved.
alloys
Solid solutions that contain two or more metals. Formed by melting the component metals together, mixing them together, and then allowing them to cool.
gaseous solutions
all mixtures of gases, including the air we breathe.
liquid solutions
the solvent and solution are liquids. the solute may be a gas, liquid, or solid.
miscible
Pairs of liquids that can mix in any amount.
immiscible
liquids that can not mix in any proportions.
aqueous solutions
solutions with water as the solvent.
electrolyte
A substance that dissolves in water to form a solution that conducts an electric current, like sodium chloride.
nonelectrolyte
A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct electricity, like sugar.
concentration of a solution
the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution.
molarity (M)
moles of solute/liters of solution
molality (m)
moles of solute/kilograms of solvent
mole fraction (X)
moles of component/total moles of solution
saturated solution
A solution is saturated if it contains as much solute as can possible be dissolved under the existing conditions of temperature and pressure.
unsaturated solution
A solution that has less than the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved.
supersaturated solution
A solution that contains a greater amount of solute than that needed to form a saturated solution.
solvation
The interaction between solute and solvent particles.
hydration
Solvation when the solvent is water.
endothermic processes
The separation of solute particles from one another and of solvent particles from one another are energy absorbing processes.
exothermic processes
The formation of attractions between solute and solvent particles is an energy releasing process.
solubility
the amount of solute that will dissolve in a specific solvent under given conditions.
polar solute w/ polar solvent
soluble
polar solute w/ nonpolar solvent
insoluble
nonpolar solute w/ polar solvent
insoluble
nonpolar solute w/ nonpolar solvent
soluble
ionic solute with polar solvent
soluble
ionic solute with nonpolar solvent
insoluble
like dissolves like rule
Similar substances dissolve in each other.
As temperature increases, the __________ of a solute gas becomes __________.
kinetic energy, greater
as temperature increases, the solubility of a gas in a liquid ________
decreases
as temperature increases, the solubility of a solid in a liquid ________
increases
the solubility of a gas in any solvent is increases as the pressure of the gas over the solvent ______
increases
Henry’s law
The solubility of a gas is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid.
3 factors that affect the rate at which a solid solute dissolves in a solution:
surface area, stirring, temperature
if the surface area of a solid solute is _______, it dissolves faster.
increased
If a solid solute is stirred into the liquid solvent, the rate of dissolving _______.
increases
Raising the temperature of a solvent _______ the rate at which a solid solute dissolves.
increases
colligative properties
Properties that are dependent upon the concentration of solute particles, but are independent of their nature.
vapor pressure reduction
the pressure of a vapor over a solvent is reduced when a nonvolatile solute is dissolved in the solvent. directly related to the concentration of a solution.
boiling point elevation
the amount by which the boiling temperature is raised by the addition of a nonvolatile solute.
freezing point depression
the ability of a dissolved solute to lower the freezing point of its solution.
osmosis
A net flow of solvent molecules from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated solution.
osmotic pressure
the pressure required to prevent osmosis.

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