Solubility Flashcard

Specific Heat
The quantity of heat energy that must be absorbed to increase the temp of 1g of substance by 1 degree Celcius
high capacity

water has a _____ _____ to absorb and release heat due to strong hydrogen bonding)

nonelectrolyte
nonconducting solute when in aqueous solution
electrolyte
conducting solute when in aqueous solution
ionic compounds 
what do compounds consisting of metals and nonmetals form?
like dissolves like
solubility rule
remain intact
what do covalent molecules do when dissolved in solution?
polar
do polar or nonpolar bonds dissolve in water?
acid
a substance that releases hydrogen ions, H+ , in aqueous solutions
a proton
a hydrogen has no electron, and only one one proton, so it is referred to as?
base
any compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution
hydronium ion
simply written as H+ but is H3O+ when in aqueous solution

-bitter taste

-slippery feel when dissolved in water

-turns red litmus paper blue

properties of base
dissociation
when molecules break up into ions
neutralization reaction
when acids and bases react with each other
neutralization reactions
when do hydrogen ions from an acid combine with the hydroxide ions from a base to form molecules of water?
spectator ions
remove the species that appear unchanged o both sides of the reaction
pH
in a solution, the measure of the concentration of the H+ ions present in that solution
log-based and represented as: pH=-log[H+]
mathematical expression for pH
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere dissolves to a slight extent in water and reacts with it to produce a slightly acidic solution of carbonic acid
why is rain naturally acidic?
the oxides of sulfur (SOx) and nitrogen(NOx)
chief culprits of rain
sulfur dioxide
these emissions are highest in regions with man coal-fired electric power plants, steel mills, and other heavy industries that rely on coal
in states with large urban areas, high population densities and heavy car traffic
where are NOx emissions found
acid anhydrides
oxides of sulfur and nitrogen are?
acid anhydrides
“acids without water”
the burning of coal
how does sulfur get into the atmosphere?
damage to marble
effects of acid rain
nuclear fission
the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller ones with the release of energy
the sum of the masses of these fragments is lless than the original mass
why is energy released in Einstein’s equation?
E=mc^2
Einstein’s Energy equation
critical mass
the amount of fissionable fuel required to sustain a chain reaction, providing that the fuel is held together long enough for the reaction to occur.
chain reaction
the fission reaction becomes self-sustaining
nuclear reactor
a device in which a nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate

-efficient production of electricity

-little to no CO2 produced as a byproduct

benefits to nuclear power
background radiation
the radiation that exists at a particular location, usually due to natural sources
hormesis
the concept that low doses of a harmful substance (such as radiation) may actually be beneficial
half-life
the time required for the level of radioactivity to fall to one half of it’s initial value
low-level radioactive waste (LLW)
specifically excludes nuclear fuel

-contaminated lab clothing/tools from radioisotope experiments

-discarded smoke detectors

-radioactive pharmaceuticals

Types of LLW
high level radioactive waste (HLW)
has high levels of radioactivity and, b/c of the half-lives of radioisotopes involved, requires permanent isolation from the biosphere

-tends tobe highly acidic and basic

-contains toxic metals

-contains fissionable plutonium

characteristics of HLW
battery
a system for the direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy
galvanic cells
what are every day batteries called
galvanic cell
a device that converts the energy released in a spontaneous chemical reaction into electrical energy
oxidation
loss of electrons
reduction
gain of electrons
the transfer of electrons through an external circuit
What produces electricity?
electricity
the flow of electrons from one region to another that is driven by a difference in potential energy
electrodes
electrical conductors
electrodes are placed in the cell as sites for chemical reactions
what enables the transfer of electrons?
voltage
the difference in electrochemical potential between the two electrodes
Lead-Acid Storage Battery
a true battery because it consists of a series of six cells.

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