Solids and Liquids Flashcard

fluid
a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container
surface tension
a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid’s surface together, thereby decreasing surfacce area to the smallest possible size
capillary action
the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid.
vaporization
the process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
evaporation
is the process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and enter the gas state.
freezing
the physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of heat
crystalline solids
most solids that consist of crystals
amorphous solid
is one in which the particles are arranged randomly
melting
is the physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of heat
melting point
temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
supercooled liquids
which are substances that retrain certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which they appear to be a solid
crystal structure
total three dimensional arrangement of particles of a crystal
unit cell
the smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the three dimensional pattern of the entire lattice
equilibrium
is a dynamic condition in wich two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
phase
is any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties
condensation
is the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
Chateliers principle
when a system at equilibrium is disturbed by application of a stress, it attains a new equilibrium positron that minimizes the stress
equilibrium vapor pressure
the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its corresponding luiquid at a given temperature
volatile liquids
which are liquids that evaporate readily
boiling
is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as at its surface. It occurs when the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
boiling point
is the temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmosphereic pressure
molar heat of vaporization
the amount of heat energy needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point
freezing point
is the temperature at which the solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1atm pressure
molar heat fusion
the amount of heat energy required to melt one mole of solid at its melting point
submilation
the change of state from a solid directly to a gas
deposition
the change of state from a gas directly to a solid
phase diagram
is a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist
triple point
of a substance indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium
critical point
of a substance indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure
critical temperature
is the temperature above which the substance cannot exist in liquid state
critical pressure
is the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature

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