Sociology Mid Term

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What are the three contributing factors to the development of the field?
Who coined the term ‘Sociology’?
Auguste Comte
What is a “sociological imagination” and who coined the term? How many component parts are there to the Sociological Imagination (2) and what are they? (Are they personal troubles and public issues?)

quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship b/w our individual circumstances and larger social forces

C. Wright mills

Components: ability to understand intersection b.w biography, and history

What are the three theoretical paradigms?
Structural-Functional Paradigm, Social-Conflict Paradigm, and Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm
What are their strengths and weaknesses?
SF Strength: inclusion of all social institutions.
Weakness: provides little insight in social processes b.c model of society is static
What key people are associated with each paradigm?
SF:Emile Durkheim
CT: Karl Marx
SI: George herbert Mead
What is the Central Epistemological Question of the Social Sciences? Explain why it is important.
what must be added to true beliefs to convert them into knowledge?**
What is empirical evidence?
based on scientific experimentation or observation
What are the various types of social research methods?
survey, likert scale, negative questions, representative sample, probability sample, sime random sampe, weighting
What are their strengths and weaknesses?
What is the Hawthorne Effect?
variables he had manipulated were not the cause of productivity, rather it was the effect of being studied
How do social scientists determine causality in social research? Explain.
causation- a relationship b.w variables where a change in one produces change in another
What are various types of measures of central tendency? (mean, median, mode)
Mean = AVG
median = middle
The mode is the category or score with the highest frequency in the distribution.
What is Michael Schwalbe’s article “Finding Out How the Social World Works” about?
advantages of using systemic reasearch to study social world, sums up kinds of questions soc. ask and argues important to be soci mindful when addressin soc reserch
What points do the Asch, Milgram and Zimbardo studies make?
Asch- compliance
Milgram- nazi camp saying only following commands
zimbardo, power of auth.
What is culture? What are its various components?
culture – way of life of a group of ppl
language, gestures, style, customs, tools
How is culture related to social stratification? High and popular culture.
social strat – form or another is present in all socieites, members of a given socity are divided in groups and placed in a social hiearchy
What is culture shock?
sense of disorientation that occurs when you enter a radically new social or cultural environment
What is cultural lag?
the time b.w changes in material culture or technology and resulting changes in broader cultures relevant norms, values, meanings and laws.
What are sub-cultures and counter-culture?

sub cul- group within society that is differentiated by its distincitve values, norms, and lifestyle

Counter- group within society that openjey rejects societys values and norms

Explain the differences between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism.

ethnocentrism – principle of using ones cultures as a standard bu which to eval another group or person, leading the view that culutre weird

CR- understanding other cultures in their terms rather than judging

How do each of the three theoretical paradigms view culture?
Society – how do sociologists define the term “society”?
people who interact in such a way as to share a common culture.
Define Marx’s terms “alienation” and “false consciousness.” Give examples of them.
sense o dissatisfaction the modern worker feels as a result of producing goods that are owned and controlled by someone else
-ex-factory boss gets rich off workerfalse consciousness – denial on part of oppressed when they fail to reconize the interests of ruling class in their ideology
-ex- religion creats false
Define “Socialization,” “Personality.”

soc- process of learning and internalize the values, belifes and norms of soc gorup, which become functioniong members of soc

personality -a patterned body of habits, traits, attitudes and ideas of an individual as these are organized externally into roles and statuses and as they relate internally to motivation, goals and various aspects of self hood.

What do studies on isolation tell us about the importance of socialization?
isolation affects speech development…
What are the main agents of socialization?
societym culture or group
What is “re-socialization?” Who coined the term and what is a “total institution?”

re- process of replacing prev. learned norms and values with new ones

total institution- which individuals cut off from society so lives are contolled and regulated for stripping (Goffman)

What is “dramaturgy” and how does it view social life? Who coined the term?

drama- social life analyzd in terms of similarites to theatrical perf.


What is “ethnomethodology” and how does it view social life? Who coined the term?
studty of fold methods and background knowledge that sustains a shared sense of reality in everyday interatcions
-Harold Garfinkel
What is a social group? What is a primary and secondary group?

group – collections of ppl who share attribute and ID with one another

Primary- people most important to our snese of self, members relationship typically char. by face to face

2ndary- larger less intimate than primar groups, members relationships usually organized around oal

What is a reference group?
provides standard of comparision against which we eval self
What is the article “Lovely Hula Hands” about? What sociological terms could be used to describe patterns of human interaction in the article? In Trask’s analogy, who is the pimp? Who is the prostitute?
exploitation, prostitute pimp, client
What is “social stratification?” What are examples of various types of social stratification systems?
division of society in group arranged in a social hierarchy
Slavery, caste, social class
What is the Davis-Moore thesis? Do people really earn what they are worth? Why or why not?
Davis and Moore argue that the most difficult jobs in any society are the most necessary and require the highest rewards and compensation to sufficiently motivate individuals to fill them.
What is social class? What are the social class categories in the U.S.?
How does Max Weber define social class? Marx?

Weber: Wealth and prestige to help gain higher finacial

Marx- feudal system, monumental changes economic relations

What is the term “ideology?”
system of beliefs, attitudes, and values that directs society and reproduces status quo
What is relative vs. absolute poverty?
relative poverty below scoietys standards ie walmart worker
Absolute cant
Who are the poor in the U.S.?
What are the two explanations for poverty in the U.S.?
poverty / absolute
What are the main findings of C. Wright Mills’ “The Power Elite”?
What are the main findings of Martin Sanchez Jankowski’s “Gang Business”?
What is a “stigma”? “Stigma management”?
Stigma- physical or social attribute that devalues a person or groups Identity and that may exclude those who are devalued from normal
What does the global distribution of wealth look like?
How do modernization and dependency theory explain global stratification?
What are the main findings of Robert Granfield’s study “Making it By Faking It”?
toward working class students stigma of their class
What is gender? What is sex?
What is “gender stratification”?
How is gender related to inequality?
What is patriarchy? What is sexism?
Are women in the U.S. a minority? Why or why not?
What is feminism? What are the various types of feminism?
What are the main findings of Barbara Ehrenreich’s “Nickel and Dimed”?

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