Sociology – Ch. 1 & 2

Structural functionalism
Upholds status quo, Recognizes manifest or obvious functions as well as latent or hidden functions,
Seeks to explain the functions of various social stucture

Karl Marx
Believed that nearly all known societies are characterized by some system of division by economic class, which results in conflict as classes compete for wealth, power, and resources

Emile Durkheim
Established the first rule for conducting sociological research and examined the impact of modern society on social solidarity

Sociological imagination
The ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them

Independent variable
Changed intentionally to produce an effect

Dependent variable
Is expected to change as a result

Validity
The idea that concepts and measurements accurately represent what they claim to represent

Sample
Refers to a relatively small number of people selected to represent a population

Sociology
The scientific study of human social relationships, groups, and societies

Agency
The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change

Structure
Patterned social arrangements that have an enabling or constraining effect on agency

Reciprocal
The relationship between agency and structure. As they both have an effect on one another

Critical thinking
The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence

Harriet Martineau
Argued that injustices such as slavery and women’s inequality stunted a society’s moral development

Auguste Comte
“Father of Sociology.” Founded and named sociology as a discipline, pushing for a positivist society in which knowledge would be based on scientific reasoning and facts

Class conflict
Competition between social classes over the distribution of wealth, power, and other valued resources in society

Power
The ability to mobilize resources and achieve goals despite the resistance of others

Scientific method
The process of gathering empirical data, creating theories, and rigorously testing theories

Hypothesis
Ideas about the world that describes a possible relationship between social phenomena