Sociology 208

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
The general trend of Americans’ attitudes toward the unmarried has been from an attitude of __________ to an attitude of __________.
A. non-acceptance; acceptance
In the United States there appears to have been a broad cultural shift in the values Americans hold most dear. The general trend has been from an emphasis on ________ to _________.
parenting; self-fulfillment
The primary family unit in Western nations is
C. the small, household-based family of parents and children. Correct
Sociologists generally do not use experiments to prove or disprove relationships between two factors since ______ is seldom possible.
. randomization
If you want to determine how a family is adjusting to the daily expectations and changes of remarried life with children, the most effective sociological theory to employ would be
symbolic interaction.
While the public family is about __________, the private family is about __________.
A. caretaking and dependency/nurturing and intimacy
rom a(n) _______ perspective, people are viewed as rational beings who decide whether to exchange goods or services by considering the benefits they will receive, the costs they will incur, and the benefits they might receive if they chose an alternative course of action.
exchange perspective
Gender, the characteristics distinguishing men and women from each other, is thought to originate from __________ defined roles, according to feminist theorists.
To conduct ___________ studies, researchers may join the group they are interested in and live with them for a period of time.
Of the following, which group would NOT fit the definition of a public family?
B. A childless married couple with no dependents Correct
n 2004, the state of _______________ became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage, joining the countries of Canada, Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands.
. Massachusetts
If you were concerned with the way families discipline their children, handle their disagreements, or share their affection, you would be focusing on the
private family.
The best term to describe the attitude of many Americans toward marriage and family in the 2000s is
B. ambivalence.
Those most likely to view marriage as a socially constructed institution organized to maintain male dominance most likely subscribe to the principles of
. feminist theory
A state in which family members are unsure of who is and who is not in the family is referred to as
boundary ambiguity
The emergence of a protected, extended stage of childhood in the 1800s occurred as a result of
the spread of schooling and a decline in child deaths
Extended families (other relatives in the household besides husband, wife, and their children) were never predominant in the United States because
life expectancy was short and made it improbable that grandparents lived with their children.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, most Native Americans lived in
tribal societies based on lineages
he real responsibility of the True Woman as described by historian Barbara Welter was
to save men from immoral behavior and take over much of the day-to-day home tasks for men
The primary job open to African-American and Mexican American women prior to the 1960s was
domestic servant.
Informal marriage was common in all but which of the following groups:
Chinese immigrants
he family system in which descent is reckoned through both the mother’s and the father’s line is followed in the United States and is called
bilateral kinship.
The disruption of slave families was more severe in
The Appalachian area
The mestizo group of Mexican American settlers
were farmers
In the United States, levels of lifetime childlessness were higher for women who reached their peak child-bearing years in the __________ than in any other generation of women in the twentieth century.
. 1930s
According to contemporary research, the breadwinner-homemaker family was:
dominant only in the aftermath of the Depression and World War II in the 1950s.
A benefit that may have resulted from women’s restriction to the world of home, and which may have laid the groundwork for subsequent women’s social and political movements, was
A. the creation of a subculture of sisterhood. Correct
B. the ability for women to set their own schedules.
C. their knowledge of children and home.
D. their isolation.
A form of polygamy in which a man is allowed to have more than one wife is also referred to as
Select one:
A. polyandry
B. extended family
C. polygyny Correct
D. conjugal family
A study of the history of family reveals that __________ family is as old as human civilization but that _______ family emerged much more recently.
. public; private
The American Revolution of 1776 brought about many changes including
increased autonomy of women within the family.
In sociological terms, gender is considered a __________ creation, while sex is considered a _________ creation.
. social/biological
The play of boys and girls, even those who are older (fifth grade and above), differs in that boys are more likely to play __________, while girls are more likely to play __________.
C. in large groups with a goal; in small groups without a goal
According to the interactionist approach, gender differences between men and women exist primarily because of
everyday behavior that reinforces gender distinctions
The central mechanism of the socialization approach to explaining male/female differences is __________ while that of the interactionist approach is __________.
B. learning; behavior
Of the following which is “gendered”?
Select one:
A. housework
B. child care
C. work for wages
D. all of the above —–
ocial science research provides evidence that most children develop a gender identity during
. pre-school years.
Socialization research is focused on the affect of ________ on influencing children’s beliefs of proper behavior for boys and girls.
Select one:
A. the media
B. parents
C. peer groups
D. all of the above Correct
The correct answer is: all of the above
Psychologist Eleanor Maccoby suggests that same sex peer groups reinforce a(n) __________ interaction style in boys and a(n) __________ interaction style in girls.
elect one:
A. reserved; straightforward
B. dominance oriented; cooperative Correct
C. cooperative; competitive
D. expressive; emotional
The correct answer is: dominance oriented; cooperative
Sex chromosomes, reproductive organs, and physical characteristics are all __________ characteristics that distinguish us humans by __________.
. biological; sex Correct
A consistent finding across all studies of the play behavior of young girls and boys is that
A. boys, on average, show more competitive behavior than girls.
The feminist-influenced branch of men’s studies believe that male aggressiveness is
. a social construct
The overwhelming predominance of _________ suggests that it is the typical manner in which people have made sense out of sex.
. the two-gender model
“Two-spirited” females were most likely to be found in societies
where men had less control over women
Hormone influences of the mother on her fetus in the second trimester of pregnancy can fully determine children’s behaviors.
Two-spirit-like gender categories have been documented in many Native American cultures.
When asked on surveys (such as the General Social Survey) to which class they belong, most U.S. residents respond that they are either
B. working class or middle class
Upper class families in the United States are characterized by which of the following:
They tend to be highly recognized as part of the social and cultural elite of their communities.
Studies in the United States suggest that husbands and wives may belong to different classes in ____________ of all two-parent, two-earner families.
Since the 1970s, families whose income lies in the middle of the income distribution (of all U.S. families) have kept up with the cost of living primarily by
. having wives take jobs outside the home.
Which of the following is most likely to be married when they give birth
. Women with a college degree
Kinship networks of the poor
Select one:
A. spread the burden of poverty
B. will share whatever they have even if they are poor
C. help others to get by day by day
D. all of the above —-
Based on sociological studies, those kinship ties that engender the strongest feelings of obligation are
C. vertical kinship ties including parents to children to grandchildren
Which of the following is not a value emphasized by working class parents?
. creativity
All of the following are advantages that middle-class children gain from “the accomplishment of natural growth” except which?
They are more physically fit
Working class compared to middle class parents differ in their choice of important childrearing values primarily because of
. different job experiences.
A group of people who share a common style of life and often identify with each other is called a/an
status group
Chances of divorce have been _______ for college graduates and ________ for people who did not graduate from high school
declining; increasing
Income inequality among families has increased because of all but which of the following?
Select one:
A. the growing importance of education Incorrect
B. the decline in number of children born in each family
C. the growth of single-parent families headed by women
D. globalization
The correct answer is: the decline in number of children born in each family
The concept of status group was refined by the famous sociologist
. Max Weber
Of the following, the best example of an assortative marriage would be
Protestant college graduate marrying a Catholic college graduate
When Barack Obama was born in Hawaii to an interracial married couple in 1961 at least ________ states had laws forbidding marriages between whites and non-whites.
B. 15 Correct
The number of births and deaths among American Indians did not change dramatically between 1970 and 1980. How would you explain the 72 percent rise in their population during this same time period?
. More people began to think of themselves as American Indian and reported themselves to the U.S. Census as that.
The number of middle-class African American families in the United States has been increasing, but one critical aspect that distinguishes them from middle-class white families is their
assets such as savings, investments, and homes.
Among Hispanics, the racial-ethnic group members who, on average, are the least likely to formally marry are
Puerto Ricans
Family households in the United States most likely to marry a spouse of a different race are from the __________ racial-ethnic group.
B. Asian American
he decline in marriage among African Americans can be explained by the following phenomenon:
the lack of suitable marriage partners for women due to job losses and incarceration among men.
To overcome their economic hardships, Puerto Ricans have used a system of __________, much as African Americans have used a system of __________.
A. consensual unions; female-centered kin networks
The _________ category has become an umbrella for an extremely diverse group of people that differ in language, religion, and physical features.
Select one:
A. African American
B. Hispanic.
C. Asian American
D. Both B and C Correct
The correct answer is: Both B and C
The economically disadvantaged position of American Indian families is most comparable to that of
B. African American families
The first wave of Cuban-American immigrants, in contrast to most other major immigrant groups in the United States, arrived in _____.
A. a political migration
Statistics from 2006 show that ____ of American Indian births were to mothers who were unmarried.
D. 65%
One way mentioned by Cherlin in which Asian culture differs from American culture pertains to
. the responsibility assumed by adult children for their parents
When comparing African American and white families it can be said that black families are more likely to
lect one:
A. include an extended family member
B. have ties to a kin network
C. have a grandparent play a strong roles in children’s lives
D. All of the above
he lowest poverty rates among Hispanic families are those of
C. Cuban American Correct
In referring to “whiteness as an ethnicity” it can be said that
Select one:
A. there is not a heritage of kinship networks
B. it is not an inherent characteristic of people
C. nearly all whites descended from European immigrants Incorrect
D. all of the above—
The group most likely to show a link between biology and homosexuality would be
. identical twins
A person’s sexual orientation is a result of
still undetermined
Queer theory
xplains that sexual life is artificially organized into categories that reflect the power of heterosexual norms.
Living apart together” (LAT), people who are intimately involved but live in separate households,
was first noticed in Europe in the late 1970s
The concept of sexual identity requires _____________ and ________________ that was not prominent until the late nineteenth century.
self consciousness; self-examination
he Kinsey Report, a book published in 1948, shocked the nation because
Select one:
A. of the high number of men who admitted to have had sexual relations with other men.
B. the author’s claim that sexuality should be viewed as a continuum running from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual.
C. of the high number of men who admitted to sexual feelings toward other men.
D. all of the above
In several surveys of adult sexual activity, over __% of women and over ___% of men said that they had had no sex partners other than their spouses over the previous 12 months.
. 97; 94
Both the Kinsey Report and the recent NSFG study show that sexual orientation appears to be one-dimensional.
hanges in sexual activity in the United States since the start of the century have served to:
weaken the role of marriage as the core of family life.
Social constructionists would argue that sexual identities
vary from culture to culture
A significant development in the twentieth century that has changed the relationship between sex-as-reproduction to sex-as-pleasure is
modern methods of contraception. Correct
Cohabiting relationships of opposite or same sex couples would not be common without the increasing acceptance of sexual activity outside marriage.
True Correct
Today, in general, couples in a marriage are most likely to
. practice sexual monogamy Correct
The fact that sexual identities have only recently emerged as a concept suggests that:
they are socially constructed.
The two categories of sexual activity prior to the late nineteenth century included the following
D. socially approved and socially disapproved.
Recent studies suggest that cohabitation is
Select one:
A. an alternative way of being single
B. a testing ground for marriage
C. an alternative to marriage
D. all of the above
Compared to women with less education and lower earnings, the specialization model predicts that women with more education and higher earnings are __________ likely to marry while the income-pooling model predicts they are __________ likely to marry.
A. less; more
he breadwinner-homemaker model of marriage
flourished in the 1950s, at least for middle class whites
Which of the following was not a factor in changing the nature of marriage from companionship to individualization?
. the migration of large numbers of people to rural areas
. was a system of exchanging goods for companionship Correct
A marriage in which the emphasis is on self-development, flexible roles, and open communication is called
. individualistic marriage
fter the 1900s, the key resource that young people in the United States gained, which changed a centuries-old system of courtship was:
. spending money.
Hooking up
Select one:
A. became common in the 2000s
B. does not always imply sexual intercourse
C. does not imply romantic attraction
D. all of the above
With the emergence of adolescence as a recognized life stage for teenagers, the high school and college years gave young people
. a protected time relatively free of parental involvement.
publicly visible and has rules and restrictions
Living together without marrying would be more common among the poor of a society primarily because
. it matters less who is morally or legally bound to whom.
Historically in the United States, and in some developing nations today, __________ has/have played an important part in the selection of a spouse.
Burgess, a family sociologist,
. did not foresee the dual-earner marriage overtaking the breadwinner-homemaker marriage
The institutional marriage is marked predominately by
strict roles dictating how one is to behave within the family unit.
ncreasingly, people in American society enter into marriage because:
. they want to increase their level of personal satisfaction.
People who do paid care work
Select one:
A. earn less than people who do comparable work
B. have jobs that are devalued in the labor market
C. often are experiencing “free-riding” from others
D. all of the above
Face-to-face activity in which one person meets the needs of another who cannot fully care for herself or himself is called
C. care work.
ome observers have suggested that balancing work and family has become difficult for Americans because they are
working longer hours.
The United States has been a frontrunner among industrialized nations in implementing family-friendly policies for U.S. workers.
Select one:
By the mid-200s, what percentage of wage and salary workers telecommuted on an average day?
. 10
One of the most important twentieth-century developments for the family has been
the movement of married women into employment outside the home.
he first parental leave act passed by U.S. Congress in 1993 (and still in effect) provided parental leave under the following conditions
12 weeks unpaid leave in firms with more than 50 employees. Correct
Which of the following factors is not related to women’s increased participation in the labor force?
. expansion of manufacturing jobs
Tronto (1993) and others believe that we overvalue individualism and _________ and undervalue interdependence and _________
. autonomy; caring
Most childcare assistance currently offered by U.S. business firms benefits
the middle-class.
The percentage of Americans who work very long weeks (50 hours or more) is higher than in
A. France
B. The United Kingdom
C. Germany
D. all of the above —
Presser (1999) reports that about 1/3 of all dual-earner married couples arrange for childcare by
C. working different shifts.
The proportion of housework done by husbands in the United States went up dramatically as wives enter the labor market.
n 2004, what percentage of all workers had evening, night, or rotating schedules?
. 18 Correct
The most common and widely used employee benefit is
. flextime.
The few studies of children growing up in lesbian families compared to heterosexual families show that
there is little significant difference between the two.
Recent research on fathering suggests that:
C. father involvement is correlated with positive development in both sons and daughters.
Socialization of children is closely correlated with:
cultural norms and values.
eople surveyed in 2003 believed what percentage of children lived in poverty:
C. 30%
he major source of primary socialization for children in the United States is
D. family.
Children in America experience more changes to the compositions of their households than do children in any other Western nation.
The changing nature of adoption is reflected in the fact that
Select one:
A. two-thirds of the children adopted have a disability
B. a significant portion of adopted children are foreign born
C. sixty percent of foreign-born children were from Asian countries
D. all of the above —
In the United States each class socializes its children to:
A. fit the same kinds of job positions they themselves have.
Of the three types of parenting styles that Baumrind researched, the __________ parenting style seems to produce children who are more socially competent.
A. authoritative
The different manner in which parents treat male and female children can be attributed to ______, which have little to do with true biological differences.
. gender roles Correct
In studies of white, middle-class families in Iowa who were under economic pressure, Elder and Conger found that fathers in these families
were irritable and hostile toward their wives and children.
Single parents appear to be less capable of adequate parenting.
About half of the disadvantages of living in a single- parent family are due to
. low income.
he best parents (that is, those who are most likely to produce children who are socially competent) perform three tasks well: they set clear standards, they enforce standards consistently without harsh punishment, and they __________.
provide substantial emotional support Correct
Families that maintain continual contact with each other even though they live in different countries are called
C. transnational families
Public awareness of nursing home care for the elderly has been influenced in recent years by numerous expose-type news articles and documentaries. This focus has had the perhaps unintended result of many U.S. citizens believing that _____ of the elderly live in nursing homes, when in fact, most of the elderly are cared for by _____.
. a majority; members of their families
he most common generation linkage of kin in the United States is __________ generations.
B. three
Which of the following factors has contributed to grandparenthood becoming a distinct stage of life?
Select one:
A. decline in adult mortality
B. decrease in fertility
C. increased standard of living
D. all of the above
Skipped-generation households are created because of the following reason/s
Select one:
A. child abuse by parent
B. incarceration of parent
C. drug abuse or illness
D. all of the above
Today in the United States there are more than ______________ centenarians, people who live to be more than 100 years old.
. 50,000
Of the following living arrangements, which is the most likely one for elderly men today in the United States?
C. living with a spouse
Which of the following relationships tends to be the most distant in middle and late life in the United States?
D. alone
When the author uses the term the “family national guard” he refers to
grandparents Correct
Based on current figures, you and your parents’ lives, on average, will overlap by about _____ years.
. 50
The percentage of grandchildren living with grandparents has
C. increased
The primary factor determining the amount and degree of contact among families is
. geographical distance
As the twentieth century ended, the most common living arrangement among elderly women in the U.S. became
living alone.
ntergenerational ties are becoming more important because of
. the decline of the two-parent nuclear family.
Among the elderly, those most likely to be poor are:
Select one:
A. older
B. female.
C. African American or Hispanic.
D. all of the above —-
Child abuse is least likely to occur in what type of family?
A. families in which both parents are employed
“Situational couple violence” is typified by
it arises from a particular incident
Female victims of violence in the United States face the highest risk of physical injury
. from someone they know well.
“Intimate terrorism” is characterized by
The theory that aggressive behavior occurs when a person is blocked from achieving a goal is called
Most reports of rape in surveys of date rape reveal that rape was committed
by someone the victim knew.
Which of the following characteristics would describe a young man who has committed sexual aggression against an acquaintance compared to a young man who has not?
Select one:
The one who has committed sexual aggression would show more hostility toward women.
B. The one who has committed sexual aggression would consider violence against women acceptable.
C. The one who has committed sexual aggression would show greater physiological arousal when presented with rape scenarios in psychology experiments.
D. all of the above —-
Only ___ percent of men have reported experiencing a violent act by an intimate partner, while ____ percent of women have reported experiencing a violent act by an intimate partner.
Select one:
A. 5: 22
The teacher of a required course on how to handle conflict and anger in a relationship would most likely be using a __________ approach to domestic violence.
cohabiting Correct
n an experiment conducted by the Minneapolis Police Force in the early 1980s, _____ resulted in the lowest level of repeat violence.
. arresting the suspect
The feminist movement in the United States had as its fundamental goal on the issue of domestic violence
to remove the social supports for male violence in our culture.
If a domestic violence advocate were operating under the political model, he/she would be most apt to support which of the following?
A. increasing women’s pay to a level equal to men’s
A 2004 study found that the elderly were most likely to be abused by
. their children.
Of the substantiated elder abuse cases in 2004, the most prevalent type was
. caregiver neglect
The typical waiting period for a divorce in the United States is _____, which is _____ than most other Western countries.
. one year or less; lower
According to research reported by Cherlin, which of the following individual risk factors increases the likelihood of divorce?
elect one:
A. premarital cohabitation
B. young age at marriage
C. being African American
D. all of the above
Women’s employment in the United States has had the effect, overall, of
C. making divorce more likely.
ne of the most consistent findings of the research into the effects of divorce is that
fathers after divorce are not as involved with their children as they may have been before.
The woman that is least likely to obtain a legal divorce after separation?
. an African American woman
Of the following couples, which one is the least likely to divorce in contemporary U.S. society?
B. couples with the same religious background
On the basis of what we know of the currently available research reports, children of divorced parents
Select one:
A. experience a crisis period after the divorce.
B. resume normal development within two years after the divorce.
C. a minority of them may experience problems into adulthood
D. all of the above
Historically, annulments were only granted in the following case(s)
elect one:
A. marriage between close relatives.
B. adultery.
C. if spouses had not engaged in sexual intercourse.
D. both a and c Correct
The correct answer is: both a and c
The arrangement whereby divorced parents coordinate their activities and cooperate with each other in raising their children is commonly referred to as
Select one:
A. joint legal custody
B. parallel parenting
C. coparenting Correct
D. joint upbringing
The correct answer is: coparenting
Single father families now represent ____% of single parent families
C. 15
Which of the following was NOT grounds for divorce during the era of divorce tolerance?
D. irreconcilable differences Correct
In the era of restricted divorce, men were more likely to be granted a divorce based on adultery than women. This was due primarily to the fact that
The correct answer is: in an agricultural-based economy, men needed to control labor (children) by controlling sexual access to their wives.
hich of the following was NOT grounds for divorce in the American colonies?
D. financial difficulties Correct
In the era of restricted divorce, countries with that were predominantly __________ were more liberal about divorce.
elect one:
A. Catholic
B. Protestant Correct
C. Anglican
D. Muslim
The correct answer is: Protestant
All of the following were official reasons for divorce in the era of divorce tolerance, except

Select one:

A. mental cruelty
B. habitual drunkeness
C. emotional dissatisfaction Correct
D. nonsupport
The correct answer is: emotional dissatisfaction
Which of the following racial-ethnic group members are most likely, on average, to remarry after a divorce?
Select one:
A. African Americans
B. Native Americans
C. Hispanics
D. non-Hispanic whites Correct
The correct answer is: non-Hispanic whites
Cherlin describes life in stepfamilies as a(n) ______ social institution.
Select one:
A. nonexistent
B. ignored
C. incomplete Correct
D. complete
The correct answer is: incomplete
In all discussions of stepfamilies and step-relatives it is obvious, on the basis of current research findings, that the primary ingredient in making a stepfamily “work” in ways similar to the common conjugal unit is that someone
Select one:
A. adopts the children from a first marriage.
B. does the work of kinship. Correct
C. attends counseling.
D. helps support the new family.
The correct answer is: does the work of kinship.
he stepparent who is in a stable stepfamily is likely to
elect one:
A. show warmth toward and support of the stepchildren
B. not discipline the stepchildren
C. support the biological parent’s parenting style
D. all of the above
Therapists suggest that the transitional period in forming new family systems for many stepfamilies is approximately
2-4 years
Stepmothers who do not live with their stepchildren
B. see themselves as friends of the stepchildren
Among racial-ethnic groups, those who are least likely to remarry in the United States are
. African American.
One of the critical factors determining whether a child considers a stepparent a “real” parent is
the age of the child when the stepparent joined the household.
or children living in stepfamily households, the effect best established in research literature is
A. they leave their households at an earlier age than children in other types of families.
Of the types of kinship ties, which is more likely to change over the course of a person’s lifetime?
B. created kinship ties
he original Old English prefix “step” as in stepmother signified a relationship caused by
D. death
Remarriage rates tend to be lower for:
the poor than the non-poor.
The likelihood that remarriages that include stepchildren will end in divorce is ______ in comparison to those that do not.
D. higher
The introduction of a stepparent into a household containing a young teenager is increasingly difficult due to the effects of ______.
. adolescence
With the increasing numbers of remarriages and subsequent stepfamilies, the practices of the court system in the United States have been
evolving slowly toward recognizing some rights and responsibilities of stepparents.
Most government involvement in family support is based on a concern about
D. dependents, especially children and the elderly. Correct
Until the depression in the United States, the government felt that it __________ (in) family affairs.
A. should not intervene
AFDC was initiated in the _____ and was originally intended to help _____.
1930s; widowed women with children.
The Social Security Act of 1935 followed the division of labor implicit in the family wage system and provided pensions primarily to
. working males.
he program of financial assistance to low-income single-parent families that has become commonly known as “welfare” has been modified from
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) to Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF).
Between 1996 and 2008, the number of families receiving TANF declined by more than
C. 50%
the United States, two kinds of conflicts that underlie much of the controversy and discussion of major public issues concerning the family include
The correct answer is: parents working outside the home and childhood poverty.
Since the mid-20th century, all but the following reason have made it possible for women to live full lives outside of marriage
he correct answer is: a cultural shift away from the nuclear family
Those considered to be the most undeserving poor in our country are
. unemployed, able-bodied men.
____ American families, including middle class families, receive ________ government assistance:
C. Most; substantial Correct
The family wage system remained the dominant culture view of the family in the first half of the twentieth century.
The Earned Income Tax Credit is only for families in which both parents are working.
Most middle-class families in the United States receive substantial government assistance.
The modern welfare state, as represented by the United States, has treated husbands and fathers differently from wives and mothers.
True Correct
Liberals tend to help married couples in which the wife works outside the home.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member