Social psychology- the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

Attribution theory
The theory that we give either a situational or dispositional meaning to others’ behavior

Fundamental attribution error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing one another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of their disposition, and to do the opposite with ourselves

Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
In hopes of gaining even more in the future, building up small requests to larger ones

Cognitive dissonance theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts contradict or are inconsistent

Adjusting to one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group

Normative social influence
Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid dissaproval

Informational social influence:
Influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept other’s opinions about reality

Social facilitiation
Improved performance of tasks in presence of others if good at task and vice versa

Social loafing
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.

The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

Group polarization
The enhancement of attitude and therefore severity of actions when in a group than individually

The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

A predisposed attitude toward a group and its members, usually involving stereotyped beliefs.

A generalized belief about a group of people

Ingroup- Outgroup

Ingroup bias
The tendency to favor one’s own group and its’ people

Scapegoat theory
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

Just-world phenomenon
The tendency of people to believe that people get what they deserve

Frustration-Agression principle
The principle that frustration from something blocking achievement of a goal creates anger which generates aggression

Unselfish regard for welfare of others

Bystander effect
The tendency of bystanders to diffuse responsibility (more people, less likely to react)

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