Social Psychology, Myers Chp. 1

social psychology
the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another

social neuroscience
an integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviors

culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

social representations
socially shared beliefs – widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. This helps us make sense of our world

hindsight bias
The tendency to exaggerate after learning an outcome, one’s ability to have forseen how something turned out, aka the “I knew it all along” phenonenon.

theory
an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events

hypothesis
a testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events

field research
research done in natural, real-life settings outside the lab

correlational research
the study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables

experimental research
studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one of more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)

random sample
survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion

framing
the way a question or an issue is posed; it can influence people’s decisions and expressed opinions

independent variable
the experimental factor that a researcher manipulates

dependent variable
the variable being measured that is not manipulated in experimentation

random assignment
the process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition

mundane realism
degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations

experimental realism
degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants

deception
in research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study’s methods or purposes

demand characteristics
cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected

informed consent
an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

debriefing
in social psychology, the postexperimental explanation of a study to its participants. It usually discloses any deception and often queries participants regarding their understandings and feelings.