Social minorities in British and Romanian online media Essay

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A comparative analysis between United Kingdom and Romania

We will get down our analysis by placing what “ societal representation ” agencies, through which the persons belonging to a community define the image of other persons from certain societal groups. We define this construct as a set of mental images portion of a societal world which maintain a group consensus and which assures a community ‘s solidarity.

Important in understanding the formation and operation of societal representations is their dynamism, facet highlighted by Serge Moscovici, considered the male parent of the construct. This places societal representation in an intermediate place between the construct

( which extracts and organizes the existent significance ) and image ( which reproduces the world ) . Besides, being in the intersection of single consciousness and the corporate outlook, societal representation is shaped by the interaction between these two degrees of the world ‘s representation.

Mentioning to the formation of societal representation mechanism, the interaction between personal and corporate consciousness, and an facet that should be of involvement to show research, viz. the ways in which these representations can be modified under the action of communicating systems.

They were identified by Serge Moscovici in his survey “ La psychanalise, boy image et son public ” :

Diffusion: the information is transmitted, the reply needs to run into the populace ‘s involvement

on an specific subject and sentiments occur from this.

Propagation: this study operates on the attitudes degree, by puting a connexion with receptors on an organized vision of the universe, and “ educates ” a set of

consistent replies to the populace ‘s inquiries.

propaganda: it complies to extremely counter societal dealingss, it fuels

conflicting visions of the universe proposed by a beginning and an opposing group, refuses any alternate positions and ends up pulling a disparaging stereotype.

To depict the mechanism of the stereotype forming we will mention to the following two stairss:

Objectivity which converts the abstract into concrete, the construct into an image or a nonliteral node. In this manner, the object in inquiry loses its deepness and nicety, being reduced to a strategy whose entree to community mental airing in infinite is easier than the entree to the original construct.

Anchoring is a phase when the new class is added to those already bing which are good known and consolidated. In the terminal the socially relevant capable becomes classified and named, therefore taking to a softening of the unknown.

Bias

In the context of a unfastened society towards the inclusion of minorities within it, an of import point is the bing biass among persons in that society.

Prejudice is defined as by and large negative attitudes directed towards members of a group based on mere rank of the “ mark topics ” to that group. We find ourselves, hence, confronted with a stereotype, by and large negative, whose chief characteristics are summarized below.

An of import characteristic of the bias is its strong emotional burden. Depreciation of the 1 in inquiry of bias is non limited to a cognitive degree, but translated into emotions and strongly negative feelings towards him from concern and anxiousness to revolt and contempt, accompanied by fazing outlooks and beliefs on the topic and, traveling further, the inclination to reassign these provinces into cognitive and emotional behaviour.

The strong emotional significance makes the bias to be activated spontaneously instead than a rational appraisal. In add-on, the more often are used the classs from which bias consists, the more accessible it becomes and frailty versa, taking to the automatic activation of the bias.

If the instance of bias, a strong emotional dominant causes the increased opposition to the reconfiguration of information already imprinted in memory.

In the present research, it is interesting to follow if the elements that built some biass about minorities in Romania and Great Britain are present in articles covering with issues from this societal groups and how they appear – reconfirmed or, instead, by a suggestion or a declaration of censoring it from the reader ‘s value system. Both state of affairss would merely propose that such article could merely assist to beef up bing biass.

In this survey we analyze the images produced by two different civilizations, so that the premises will be closely linked to the typical characteristics of each of these civilizations. A utile tool in this regard is given by the cultural theoretical accounts defined by Hofstede Geert.

His research is known as being representative for cultural surveies at the states degree and is so far one of the chief landmarks in the field of interculturalism. The surveies that followed developed the continuity in clip of the identified cultural dimensions and defined correlativities between these points and assorted factors from economic, societal and psychological field.

Given that the definition of Hofstede civilization is a “ mental scheduling that distinguishes members of a group from members of another group, the context in which these cultural features will be used is that of supplying counsel on the expected differences to be highlighted between the two images of minorities, the British and Rumanian.

The five cultural dimensions revealed in Hofstede ‘s research are:

power distance: defines the class of credence of higher-up ‘s authorization by the lower places ; in a civilization with a big distance towards power, hierarchies are defined as natural beginnings of societal inequality ( in all environments works environment, educational, spiritual even familial one ) , in contrast in civilizations with low distance toward the power, hierarchies are considered beginnings of difference instead formal ;

uncertainness turning away: refers to intolerance towards ambiguity, a demand for formal regulations and deficiency of handiness towards change ;

individuality and Bolshevism: seeks to concentrate attending, resources and personal committedness towards the individual itself or it ‘s collectivity ;

maleness and muliebrity: identifies the orientation to symbolic male values and ends or the opposite symbols of muliebrity ;

long- versus short- term orientation: in civilizations with long-run orientation, the accent is on puting in the hereafter, through doggedness and economy, while in short term orientated on an aˆz now ” as much satisfactory as possible and for the saving of what is inherited from the yesteryear

In the present stuff the accent will be on the first 4 cultural dimensions because of their relevancy to our survey. The last one is of no relevancy because it does n’t hold an impact on our survey given the fact that the both analyzed counties have a short term orientation.

Next we will develop the four dimensions doing a direct correlativity with our survey.

Power distance ( Power Distance Index – PDI ) : True the basic thought that reflects the grade of credence of societal inequality, this dimension appears as a factor that influences attitudes towards minorities: can these “ others ” be as equal or even closer to us on the societal graduated table? or minority position implies a difference that can non be, nor is it desirable to be overcome?

The effects of the orientation towards one or the other pole of this dimension, listed in Hofstede ‘s work ( 2005 ) , several concerns specify societal inclusion/exclusion. They are listed in the tabular array below:

Table 1:

Cardinal differences between small- and big power distance

Cultural differences related to the Power Distance Index

Small Power Distance

Large Power Distance

Societies: General Norm, Family and School

Inequalities among people should be minimized.

Inequalities among people are expected and desired.

Social relationships should be handled with attention.

Status should be balanced with restrain.

There should be, and there is to some extent, mutuality between less and more powerful people.

Les powerful people should be dependent ; they are polarized between dependance and counter dependance.

Societies: Workplace

Hierarchy in organisations means an inequality of functions, established for convenience.

Hierarchy in organisations reflects experiential inequality between higher and lower degrees.

There is a narrow salary scope between the top and the underside of the organisation.

There is a broad salary scope between the top and the underside of the organisation.

Manual work has the same position as office work.

White-collar occupations are valued more than blue-collar occupations.

Societies: The State

The usage of power should be legitimate and follow standards of good and evil.

Might prevails over right: whoever holds the power is right and good.

All should hold equal rights.

The powerful should hold privileges.

There is more duologue and less force in domestic political relations.

There is less duologue and more force in domestic political relations.

There are little income derived functions in society, farther reduced by the revenue enhancement system.

There are big income derived functions in society, farther increased by the revenue enhancement system.

The mentions from the tabular array show that a civilization where the distance to power is high is more likely to supply a clime hostile to societal inclusion: the differences are regarded as normal beginnings of eguallity, the deficiency of power leads to dependence whilst holding the power justifies a aˆzbonus ” of rights. Besides the political environment is dominated by aggression, doing it harder for diverseness duologue.

Uncertainty turning away ( Uncertainty Avoidance Index ) , under this dimension we meet the influence on how minorities are viewed: in civilizations with high uncertainness turning away, “ the other ” , “ different ” will bring forth anxiousness every bit long as they are considered a menace to societal order and the hazards posed by their presence are unknown.

Table 2:

Cardinal differences between weak and strong uncertainness

Cultural differences related to the Uncertainty Avoidance Index ( UAI )

Weak Uncertainty Avoidance

Strong Uncertainty Avoidance

Avoidance Societies: General Norm and Family

Similar manners to turn to for different others.

Different manners of reference for different others.

What is different is funny.

What is different is unsafe.

Tolerance of diverseness.

Xenophobia.

Avoidance Societies: Health, Education, And Shopping

Peoples have fewer concerns about wellness and money

Peoples have more concerns about wellness and money

Consequences are attributed to a individual ‘s ain ability.

Consequences are attributed to fortunes or fortune.

Avoidance Societies: The Workplace, Organization, and Motivation

Focus on determination procedure.

Focus on determination content

Motivation by accomplishment and regard or belonging.

Motivation by security and regard or belonging.

Avoidance Societies: The Citizen and the State

Few and general Torahs or unwritten regulations

Many and precise Torahs or unwritten regulations

If Torahs can non be respected, they should be changed.

Torahs are necessary, even if they can non be respected.

Fast consequence in instance of entreaty to justness.

Slow consequence in instance of entreaty to justness.

Citizen protest is acceptable.

Citizen protest should be repressed.

There is high engagement in voluntary associations and motions.

There is low engagement in voluntary associations and motions.

Tolerance, even of utmost thoughts.

Extremism and repression of extremism.

Avoidance Societies: Tolerance, Religion, and Ideas

More cultural tolerance.

More cultural bias.

Positive or impersonal toward aliens.

Xenophobia.

Refugees should be admitted.

Immigrants should be sent back.

Lower hazard of violent intergroup struggle.

High hazard of violent intergroup struggle.

One faith ‘s truth should non be imposed to others.

In faith, there is merely one truth and we have it.

Human rights: cipher should be persecuted for their beliefs.

More spiritual, political, and ideological intolerance and fundamentalism.

The points listed in the tabular array 2, chosen from Hofstede ‘s analyses are those that have direct deductions on societal inclusion / exclusion.

Intolerance is really noticeable in the extreme to the high degree of uncertainness turning away. It is hence expected that in this tipe of civilization to be a powerfull rejection of the minorities: cultural, spiritual and immigrants. The same form can be applied to minorities who are less familiar to the bulk for illustration homophiles in Romania- their existance is considered to be a tabu topic.

In states where UAI is increased the citizen facets of the relationship with the province suggests that minority position is hard to alter, is about impossible for an enterprise to be implemented by the simple citizen and have the necessary support.

Individuality and Bolshevism

Table 3 consists of the elements witch specify the grade of individuality and Bolshevism straight related to societal inclusion/exclusion.

Table 3

Cardinal differences between Collectivist and Individualist

Cultural differences related to the Individualism Index ( IDV )

Collectivist

Individualist

Societies: General Norm and Family

Children learn to believe in footings of “ we ” .

Children learn to believe in footings of “ I ”

Societies: Language, Personality and Behavior

Social web is the primary beginning of information.

Media is the primary beginning of information.

A smaller portion of both private and public income is spent on wellness attention.

A larger portion of both private and public income is spent on wellness attention.

Disabled individuals are a shame on the household and should be kept out of sight.

Disabled individuals should take part every bit much as possible in normal daily activities.

Societies: School and Workplace

Occupational mobility is lower.

Occupational mobility is higher.

In-group clients get better intervention ( particularism ) .

Every client should acquire the same intervention ( universalism ) .

Societies: The State and Ideas

Corporate involvements prevail over single involvements.

Individual involvements prevail over corporate involvements.

Private life is invaded by group ( s ) .

Everyone has a right to privateness.

Laws and rights differ by group.

Laws and rights are supposed to be the same for all.

Lower human rights evaluation.

Higher human rights evaluation.

Harmony and consensus in society are ultimate ends.

Self-actualization by every person is an ultimate end.

Patriotism is the ideal.

Autonomy is the ideal.

Of involvements for this survey are those differences between individualistic and collectivized civilizations that relate to communicating, specifically showing peculiar desires and self-disclosure. They are relevant in the context of environmental analysis, even practical, of communicating, for illustration our remarks subdivision if the newspaper articles online.

Sing self-disclosure that is encouraged in individualist civilizations and discouraged in the leftist, ” where is much talked about, but it is said the least ” , the information transmitted tends to be superficial, irrelevant, and merely non echt. So is desirable to follow this tendency in on-line communicating and to supervise the presence and absence of stereotypes in the positions expressed by the readers.

In the mention group, collectivists discourage negative emotional look and promote positive emotions, given the importance it attaches to group harmoniousness and coherence. In relation to those outside of the group is opposite attitude. We can therefore anticipate in a collectivized civilization the minority non merely to be seen as an foreigner, but besides negative emotions to be expressed strongly towards him.

Masculinity and Femininity.

Table 4 shows that this dimension has deductions for attitudes towards minorities, particularly against adult females and homophiles. In male civilization, the homosexual people are being associated as unsafe to society while adult females, even if the jurisprudence provides equal rights with work forces, they do non hold equality in footings of the dominant value system, that adult male is superior to adult female.

Table 4:

Cardinal differences between Feminine and Masculine

Cultural differences related to the Masculinity Index ( MAS )

Feminine

Masculine

Societies: General Norm and Family

Relationships and quality of life are of import.

Challenge, net incomes, acknowledgment, and promotions are of import.

In the household both male parents and female parents deal with facts and feelings.

In the household male parents deal with facts and female parents with feelings.

Societies: Gender and Sex

Bing responsible, decisive, ambitious, lovingness, and gentle is for adult females and work forces likewise.

Bing responsible, decisive, and ambitious is for work forces ; being lovingness and gentle is for adult females.

Individual criterion: both sexes are topics.

Double criterion: work forces are topics, adult females objects.

Homosexuality is considered a fact of life.

Homosexuality is considered a menace to society.

Societies: The Workplace

There is a higher portion of working adult females in professional occupations.

There is a lower portion of working adult females in proffesional occupations.

Societies: The State and Religion

Welfare society ideal ; aid for the needy.

Performance society ideal ; support for the strong.

Immigrants should incorporate.

Immigrants should absorb.

Many adult females are in elective political places.

Few adult females are in elective political places.

Dominant faiths stress complementarity of the sexes.

Dominant faiths stress the male privilege.

Features of British and Rumanian civilization based on Hofstede theoretical account

Great Britain

The consequences of the Hofstede ‘s most recent research have shown for the Great Britain the undermentioned values:

power distance: 35

uncertainness turning away: 35

individuality and Bolshevism: 89

maleness and muliebrity: 66

The power distance is little ( nearing the mean values ) demoing that a province hierarchy is more formal and societal mobility is high. At national degree, the deductions of this characteristic include Torahs to protect the rights of cultural minorities. At a lower degree graduated table, the effects are mentioning, for illustration, on the relationship between higher-ups and subsidiaries at work, relationship which is normally really slackly based on formalities.

Uncertainty turning away is besides low, reflecting willingness to alter and to take hazards with effects hard to assume. A nationally outstanding consequence of these characteristics is to invariably revise the Torahs and authorities constructions, and at the degree of personal interaction is sing struggles or differences between co-workers, or between subsidiaries and higher-ups, as good.

Individuality is at a really high value, which is normal for a society with a powerful economic system. A effect of this characteristic graduated table is that little household predominates as a basic societal construction, unlike the leftist, individualists associate more hard in big societal groups and lasting in clip. On a personal degree, one consequence is increased likeliness that the employee is more concerned with consequences and his development so with the squad.

Maleness is at a degree above norm, demoing that the tendency of British society is to germinate towards a typical female society, even if this development is slow and still the prevailing values are associated with maleness.

Roumania

Romania was included in a ulterior survey of Hofstede ‘s ( 2001 ) , a research with pupils as topics. The consequences revealed the undermentioned parametric quantities:

power distance: 90

uncertainness turning away: 90

individuality and Bolshevism: 30

maleness and muliebrity: 42

The consequences for power distance, surely a really big figure, confirms that an a overview of Rumanian society, power prevails over justness and a considerable prolongation of particular privileges of the power holders.

The high degree of uncertainness turning away is confirmed by the worlds that prevent long-run planning ( as an unknown hereafter generates anxiousness ) or trouble in accepting contrary positions, and tend to move on impulse, including uncontrolled look of negative emotions.

For Romania the dimension individuality / Bolshevism in the Hofstede ‘s consequences are in favour of Bolshevism. The possibility that the value of individuality is on a growing tendency now, is due to the fact that Romania had a crisp growing after the period of communism and until the economical planetary crisis.

In the instance of the last cultural dimension Romania is placed among the states with a moderate grade of muliebrity.

If we were to compare the two British and Rumanian civilizations mentioning to societal inclusion / exclusion, mentioning to Hofstede ‘s cultural dimensions, we would hold the undermentioned graphic:

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The axis inclusion / exclusion has the function to supply a comparing of two cultural profiles which we have analyzed so far. As we see it ‘s most likely to detect marks of negative attitudes against societal minorities in Romania than in Britain. A major impact on the Rumanian State have had the 20 old ages of major political and societal transmutations, which have played a function in potentiating the prejudiced attitudes in our state.

On-line media as societal district

Europe is a district dominated by the Information Society, United Kingdom and Romania holding figures above the planetary mean rate of cyberspace incursion ( United Kigdom -82,5 % and romania 32,5 % ) .

A starting point for analyzing the interaction between the societal environment and the informational 1 is provided by the plants of Manuel Castells, which examines the effects the informational revolution has in economic and societal domain.

He defines the construct of web society, as a society whose constructions are composed of webs running on communicating and information engineering produced and stored thrue microelectronics. Important in organizing such a web is its constituent component, the node. A web has no centre, it consists merely of nodes, but they each have a different grade of importance within the web, depending on their ability to assist accomplish its ends. Networks operate on a binary logic inclusion / exclusion. Network nodes can be excluded when they become excess, and new nodes are added if considered utile. Relationss between webs can be of cooperation or competition.

Castells believes that webs were historically, structural elements subordinated to hierarchal constructions, more effectual, in past conditions for large-scale societal organisation.

Modern epoch thrue the recent enlargement of informational engineering offered the installations – based web the environment and means to recognize its full potency.

We can reason, and Castells has the same attack in his work, that the planetary web called Internet, is nil but a new environment for the deployment of bing constructions and theoretical accounts, but which find in this environment more favourable conditions for attesting with maximal efficiency.

Internet as a district for societal inclusion/exclusion

WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS

World Regions

Population

( 2010 Est. )

Internet Users

Dec. 31, 2000

Internet Users

Latest Data

Penetration

( % Population )

Growth

2000-2010

Users %

of Table

Africa

1,013,779,050

4,514,400

110,931,700

10.9 %

2,357.3 %

5.6 %

Asia

3,834,792,852

114,304,000

825,094,396

21.5 %

621.8 %

42.0 %

Europe

813,319,511

105,096,093

475,069,448

58.4 %

352.0 %

24.2 %

Middle East

212,336,924

3,284,800

63,240,946

29.8 %

1,825.3 %

3.2 %

North America

344,124,450

108,096,800

266,224,500

77.4 %

146.3 %

13.5 %

Latin America/Caribbean

592,556,972

18,068,919

204,689,836

34.5 %

1,032.8 %

10.4 %

Oceania / Australia

34,700,201

7,620,480

21,263,990

61.3 %

179.0 %

1.1 %

WORLD TOTAL

6,845,609,960

360,985,492

1,966,514,816

28.7 %

444.8 %

100.0 % Although it is accessible to a big portion of population internet excludes a big portion of humanity. From the chart below we can see that 28,7 % of the Earth population has entree to the cyberspace in 30’th of June 2010. That means that more than 2/3 of the Globe ‘s population does non hold yet entree to this district.

A close analisis of the statistics that surprise the internet incursion rate in major geographical parts of the planet, we unveil another dimension of exclusion: while North America has 77.4 % , Europe 58.4 % , merely 10.9 % of Africans have entree to the Internet. An full continent has about no representation in internet. Harmonizing to the same beginnings ( www.internetwordstats.com ) the figure of Internet users has increased globally between 2000 and 2010 by 444.8 % . Africa ‘s growing rate is reciprocally relative to the coefficient on the continent: 2357.3 % .

Announcing a hereafter where the Internet will be accesible to a big figure of peoplein assorted parts of the universe, the handiness will be even more balanced study in footings of geographical distribution.

However, it is anticipated that the route towards the desired balance will be really hard to come by those groups which are now instead absent from this infinite, “ the bulk ” from the present already holding a immense sum of content created by and for them.

A cultural dimension of inclusion / exclusion in the Internet is given by the linguistic communications used for communicating in this country

.

As is shown in the above survey, Internet users who speak the same linguistic communication be given to be grouped into communities in internet, irrespective of their geographical location. Note that one third are English-speaking, about a 3rd usage the Chinese linguistic communication and merely a fifth of all users who speak languages other than the 10 most popular.

As a direct effect is a smaller public-service corporation of the Internet for those who are limited by linguistic communication both in footings of interaction with others and entree to online resources of involvement, in footings of content. Part of the job seems to hold a solution by presenting plans for automatic interlingual rendition of the texts on the cyberspace.

Furthermore the planetary web can be used as a good footing for new signifiers of instruction or merely as a support for spread outing instruction received in other media, through an tremendous sum of information it contains, and by leting existent clip interaction with people which can straight acquire involved in the educational procedure without being physically present. We hence believe that the Internet, in its current signifier, puts a barrier by more frequent usage of several linguistic communications at the disbursal of others, but besides the cyberspace consists in a acquisition environment, offering the chance of acquisition of those linguistic communications that predominate in this country. Although this intercession is a partial solution it leads to integrating instead than inclusion.

Another standard of exclusion on practical district is because of physical disablement. Handiness from this point of position of online applications is a subject which is given increasing importance in recent old ages among those who develop such plans. However the range of content accessible to people with ocular disablements or upper weaponries disablements is still really low compared to the entire sum of on-line content.

We can reason that the Internet as a planetary societal web is far from being an country accessible to all, but can easy germinate in this way given the flexibleness and changeless reconfiguration, two features that define webs. Developments will depend, nevertheless, more than economic growing and technological enlargement in certain geographical countries.

So far we ‘ve seen that the cyberspace is non a societal country which operates independently of traditional districts. By certain characteristics of his, it favors certain signifiers of exclusion and discourages others, but it is incorrect to seek the beginning of this attitudes to be located purely in internet. More, we could state that the beginning will be found outside this country, the cyberspace supplying merely the mechanism thru which the exclusion takes topographic point.

The function of mass-media online

Analyzing the function of media in the type web society, Castells argues that “ media is the new public infinite ” , chiefly in the context of civil society weakening and the diminution of the current political constructions.

Although it does non keep the power, mass media represents the power ‘s manifestation. Absence from the imperativeness can merely be interpreted as deficiency of presence from public infinite, something that no political undertaking can afford without compromising its opportunities of success ( Castells 2004 ) . Social minorities are portion of the political landscape as marks and sometimes as instigators of undertakings, which highlights the importance of them and their undertakings in the media infinite.

Alternatively we can non trust entirely on the mere presence in the media. A really of import portion is the message you send. It must be believable and sufficiently simple to hold an impact. One of the most effectual ways to make such a message is to utilize a personality / public individual, which is why political relations in the present twenty-four hours is a procedure of personalization.

The surveies cited by Castells show that negative media messages are 5 times more effectual than positive 1s from which we can reason that the preferable scheme will be largely to destruct your oppositions ‘ image.

When we speak of societal minorities, who already have a negative image, this manner of confrontation in the media public infinite, gives small opportunity of rehabilitation in a positive individuality in the eyes of the bulk. Their positive messages will be ever in the shadow of negative 1s, or if they attack their oppositions – and put on the line more of a counter reaction that in bend will be negative from the bulk side.

But in add-on to the function of conveying the information to the populace, the media has the function to construe and choose the information before it is sent frontward to the multitudes. This brings us to the issue of media use.

Not all deformed presentations of world are grounds of use from the imperativeness. Manipulation can be defined as “ action to alter sentiments, attitudes and behaviours of a individual or a societal group to accomplish desired ends by others ( persons, groups, organisations ) without the exercising of force and go forthing the feeling that this alteration is a determination free “ .

In the print media a twosome of mechanisms for misdirecting ( whether intentional or non ) are related to:

– Structuring of information: location and length of the article, general frame under which the article is placed, exposures and other in writing stuffs, the intelligence construction ;

– Form: written linguistic communication ( tone, charming words, uniting words with facts, techniques and euphemisms, orientated looks, narrative manner ) , the images linguistic communication ( photographs that change the significance of an article, exposures that appear faked, run exposures )

– Content: choice of the information beginnings, false information, rumours, masked advertisement.

Through the manner it reflects world, the imperativeness becomes a mirror of society, by the manner it reflects the worlds but besides by how they are presented to the populace. We can see a tree manner vision upon mass media as: a information facilitator, societal histrion that influences the populace and a mirror of society.

Features of the newspapers on the Internet

Switch overing from the “ traditional ” media, written or audiovisual, the one published by

Internet, has led non merely to get the better of barriers imposed by one was communicating media – populace, but besides added a much greater informational flow transmitted and by faster agencies.

Because, as Castells says ( 2004 ) , “ the value added by the Internet apart of other communicating infinites, is the ability to recombine information merchandises and procedures to bring forth a new merchandise that will be instantly processed in the web in a uninterrupted information production procedure, communicating and response in existent clip or at a ulterior clip “ .

In this context, the exponential addition in the sum of information available, it is needed, of class, a choice of utile and, so, believable information. This demand has emerged with the development of the Internet, but the undertaking to cover it becomes more complex as non merely the measure of information additions, but the Numberss that is produced. At the same clip, doing the entree to information much faster and easier, Internet offers support to undertake this job.

Mentioning to the interactivity of on-line media, we can detect that its deductions can non be defined in footings of “ black and white ” . Often there is no interaction on the cyberspace between identifiable persons, but between constructed individualities in internet. Through this interaction in societal psychological science we can anticipate to be potentiated aggression under the mask of namelessness offered by the practical environment. Meanwhile, the elements that build the mask will change from one civilization to another.

In decision online imperativeness is characterized by a high interactivity, but less personalized, with all the benefits and hazards originating from the being of dissociated individualities of physical infinite and the velocity with which the information transmitted is broadcasted, received and processed.

Practical research

The research that we are traveling to develop purposes to place the image of minorities reflected by the media in UK and Romania and compares the two representations in the context of cultural differences between the two states.

Aims and working hypothesis

To make our end we ‘ll specify specific aims as follows:

Analysis of the articles in on-line media from UK and Romania: quantitative: the figure of articles in a fit period of clip ; and qualitative: placing the chief subjects, societal policy affecting minorities, assorted events, different state of affairss etc.

Analysiss of readers ‘ reactions sing the highlighted articles: quantitative: which article generates most remarks, qualitative: impersonal reactions, positive or negative reactions on the topic.

Choosing a minority ( depending on the figure of presences ) for each of the two states and analyse the articles that refer to it, through the visible radiation that reflects on that minority group: impersonal, positive, negative.

Making an analysis of readers ‘ remarks ( on articles mentioned in the old paragraph ) to capture their image on the minority in inquiry on several degrees: the nature of the image ( impersonal, positive, negative ) , stereotypes it contains but besides the lucifer with the message send by the article reviewed.

Puting the images defined by the two old paragraphs in the appropriate cultural context and verification or rejection of the attitudes towards minorities suggested by the cultural dimensions of the two selected states.

Comparative analysis of the consequences for the UK and Romania in order to pull the decisions sing the degree of credence of minorities, but besides their presence in on-line media.

Partss of the premises for this research were cleared by the theoretical portion that this survey is based on. A brief reappraisal of premises would include:

i?? Romanians will be more likely to discriminatory attitudes towards minorities than the British, in general.

i?? Immigrants are an issue for UK, and the general reaction towards them resides from the citizens will to incorporate them into the host society if they wish to be accepted.

i?? Women will look more frequently as a minority societal group in UK ‘s instance.

i?? In Romania, people with disablements will be more absent from public infinite and the on-line media, as opposed to UK.

i?? Homosexuals are regarded negatively in both societies.

i?? Ethnic minorities will be identified more negative in Romania than in UK.

i?? Romanians ‘ attitude towards the “ other ” seen in a negative mode will be more aggressive than in the British instance.

Employed methodological analysis

The research methodological analysis will include both quantitative and qualitative analysis but besides a comparative survey. The first measure is the choice of newspapers from which we ‘ll pull out the points to be analyzed. We ‘ve excluded local newspapers concentrating chiefly on the national media. Given the big figure of publications with on-line content we chose a sum of 5 publications for each province. They were chosen based on the figure of visitants ( audience – chief standards ) in the practical infinite owned by each publication. The figures were taken from periodic studies, one-year statistics mensurating the relevant parametric quantities for on-line media publications visibleness.

In the undermentioned stairss we took into consideration the choice of the articles. We restricted analysis to one month period severally 1’st April to 30’Th April 2010, for practical grounds, the volume studied is tremendous. In every newspaper reviewed we will seek for articles that seek to turn to issues associating to societal minorities. We have focused particularly on the pages from the political, societal, cultural, subdivisions ; where off class the publications ‘ construction allowed us.

We continued to group points harmonizing to societal classs represented and harmonizing to subjects ( societal policies, personalities, events, etc. ) . Besides we recorded the figure of bing remarks on each article to one month after publication of the article. We ‘ve identified the subjects which generated the most remarks from the readers.

To explicate how the articles were selected, harmonizing to their contents, some elucidations are required:

We ‘ve included those articles that explicitly refer to certain minorities, speaking about plans or societal / political / cultural as they are intended, or about events affecting groups or persons among them.

When presented in different contexts of people from minorities, we included merely those articles where the rank to that societal category is clearly mentioned and associated to the private nature of those described in the text.

The research does non include points on general constructs of societal exclusion or to general jobs sing minorities on planetary degree.

an exclusion to the above regulation is represented by the image Romanians as immigrants have in the Rumanian newspapers, viz. that British emigres to the UK imperativeness ; we made this pick because, although no longer populating in their place states, migrators are still a job in the society from which they have left, particularly for large-scale migration- see Rumanian in Spain and Italy.

The following measure was taking for each of the two states, a minority whose image in articles and reappraisals to be studied farther. We intended to see placing those societal groups that constitute the “ hot ” subject for the period. At this point we had two choice standards:

Number of articles that deal with issues related to that minority ;

Number of remarks generated by the articles before mentioned.

Although quantitative measuring is really of import to readers ‘ reaction to measure the grade of involvement in the subject of the articles, there is a mismatch between how these treatments cover the Rumanian and British newspapers. For Romania, the remarks are unfastened for an limitless period of clip while for UK there is a clip bound when remarks are allowed and some do n’t even let remarks from the readers.

It followed the content analysis of the articles covering subjects related to the two minorities chosen in the old measure. For each of these articles, we have identified the footings used to call the societal group in inquiry or one ( or several ) of its members. Besides, footings used to depict their characteristics and their actions. . We ‘ll observe with: 0 impersonal intensions, + positive intensions, – negative intensions. Directions will be assessed depending on context and the same process will be applied for the remarks related to the article. Finally, adding these consequences led to the definition of a portrayal instead positive or instead negative of that societal minority.

To a similar analysis we ‘ve put thru the remarks of the chosen articles. In add-on to positive or negative intensions of the image consequences, we studied the possible presence of stereotypes and we ‘ve checked the understanding between the image transmitted from the article and the one highlighted by the remarks to the article.

The resulted portrayals suggest a certain tendency of inclusion or exclusion of the societal groups within those societies where they belong.

We compared these images with the outlooks suggested by the cultural profiles of the two states, detecting which of the initial premises are checked and, if disagreements, possible accounts for this findings.

Great Britain

Ten British online newspapers were selected based on a twosome of studies and statistics for the twelvemonth 2007, 2008 published by the Nielsen / / NetRatings company

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nielsen-online.com/pr/pr_081216_uk.pdf ;

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nielsen-online.com/pr/pr_071011_UK.pdf,

and a study of national dailies for April 2010 publishes on The Guardian web site hypertext transfer protocol: //www.guardian.co.uk/media/table/2010/may/14/abcs-national-newspapers

The undermentioned publications are listed to be in the top 10 on-line media:

The Guardian: www.guardian.co.uk

Telegraph: www.telegraph.co.uk

The Times: www.timesonline.co.uk

The Sun: www.thesun.co.uk

Daily Mail: www.dailymail.co.uk

The Mugwump: www.independent.co.uk

Daily Mirror: www.mirror.co.uk

Daily Star: www.dailystar.co.uk

Fiscal Timess: www.ft.com

News of the World: www.newsoftheworld.co.uk

Overall, we found 58 articles published on these sites in April 2010 which trade with express subjects related to minorities or members of their societal groups ( Internet references are listed in Annex 1 ) .

It is interesting to indicate out that an overpowering bulk of these articles belong to a individual publication, The Guardian ( 28 points, intending 48, 27 % ) . Besides these in the Daily Mail there are 10 articles, in the Sun seven, six in The Telegraph, five in the Daily Star and two publications who each had one article ( The Independent and the News of the World ) . Besides in three of these on-line newspapers we did non happen any articles related to minorities, The Times, Daily Mirror and Financial Times.

Another facet that needs taken into history in the structuring of The Guardian ‘s web site, which includes the class “ Society ” , and a subdivision explicitly dedicated to societal exclusion.

After shoping through the content of the selected articles, we identified the undermentioned minorities as being present:

Immigrants – 12

Women – 11

Peoples with Disabilities -10

Homosexuals – 6

Religious Minorities – 4

Race Minorities – 4

Cultural minorities – 4

Old People – 4

Poor people – 3

In footings of articles capable, the distribution is as follows ( points that address several of these issues have been counted in each issue individually ) :

1. socio-economic policies aimed at minorities: 35 ;

2. describe the specific life style of those who are portion of some minority: 9 ;

3. short interviews with members of a minority societal classs: 11 ;

4. events in which persons in a minority have been discriminated against: 10 ;

5. personalities among minorities: 4 ;

6. events in which members of a minority societal groups had discriminated against persons from other societal groups: 1 ;

7. statistics on minorities: 3.

Table 1 shows the distribution of these topics harmonizing to the minorities analyzed in the articles. To simplify the representation, the seven types of subjects listed in the predating paragraph have been identified by the notation ( 1 ) – ( 7 ) , depending on their place in the list above.

Having this drumhead we can do the undermentioned observations:

– Immigrants, the hapless and the aged are treated in a less “ personal ” mode, most of the toppics addressed to them are related to socio-economical policies which they are intended ;

– the most balanced distribution of topics is found in the topics related to adult females and people with disablements. It is hence most likely that these two societal groups have a more complete image than the others, issues that concern them being addressed from several angles.

Table 1

Number of articles covering with a peculiar minority within a peculiar type of topic

Type of topic

Social class

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Immigrants

8

1

2

2

1

0

1

Womans

5

2

4

1

0

1

Peoples with Disabilities

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

Homosexuals

4

0

1

1

0

1

0

Religious Minorities

4

0

2

0

0

0

0

Race Minorities

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

Cultural minorities

2

0

1

1

1

0

0

Old Peoples

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

Poor people

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

The readers ‘ reactions are non easy measured, adding remarks being permitted merely to 30 % of the articles. .When ciphering the norm, we took into history merely points open for remarks.

The consequences outlined that the increased mean figure of remarks recorded in articles about adult females ( 95 ) , people with disablements ( 73 ) and immigrants ( 37 ) . These informations in bend may hold a comparative nature since a limited figure of articles admit remarks. A wider development of this survey could foreground the association between major classs that develop treatments and the topics covered by us in this paper.

Womans as a societal minority

Although the standards ab initio set at the figure of articles would prefer the immigrants for a farther content analysis in the following measure, the consequences obtained up to this point where non harmonizing to our end, because of two grounds:

The topic is treated in articles chiefly in footings of policies of in-migration, so in a mode that small illustrates how this societal group is, as might be characterized ;

Remarks expressed by the readers are excessively few to construct an image that could be considered representative.

Therefore, we decided to execute the content analysis of articles on adult females and the related remarks. We analyzed all 11 articles, seeking relevant looks for the manner the adult females are called, their characteristics and their actions. For each of these footings we have included a class which defined the tone of the look with positive ( + ) negative ( – ) and impersonal ( 0 ) .

To do a practical presentation we will include a sum-up of the consequences in table 2.

Table 2

Identifying adult females with positive footings, impersonal or negative in the studied articles

Appreciation at the single degree

Appreciation at the group degree

Entire

The article

+

0

+

0

+

0

7

0

2

1

0

2

8

0

4

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

12

1

7

0

2

0

12

3

7

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

2

4

2

2

5

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

4

0

0

0

0

2

4

0

2

1

0

17

0

0

4

1

0

21

0

0

0

1

0

8

1

0

8

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

26

1

28

3

7

22

29

8

50

From the information we can indicate out that the image of adult females as a societal group is extremely negative, 68.75 % footings that describe aˆzwomen ” were negative and merely 9.38 % positive. A future customization of the topic, the study balances itself although it remains in favourite of the negative grasps. Overall, the image of adult females in British society has a definite negative chromaticity: 57.5 % of appraisals are negative, positive 33.3 % and 9.2 % impersonal.

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