soc ch1

sociology
the social science that studies human society and social behavior

social science
the disciplines that study human social behavior or institutions and functions of human society in a scientific manner

social interacting
how people relate to one another and influence each others behavior. sociologists are mainly interested in this.

social phenomenon
observable facts or events that involve human society

social perspective
the ability to look beyond commonly held beliefs to the hidden meanings behind human actions

social imagination
the ability to see the connection between the larger world and your personal life

anthropology
the comparative study of past and present cultures and the study of less developed countries

psychology
the social science that deals with the behavior and thinking of organisms

sociology vs psychology
psychology differs from sociology primarily in that it focuses on individual behavior rather than on group behavior

social psychology
the study of how the social environment affects individual behavior and personality

economics
the study of choices people make in an effort to satisfy their needs and wants

economists examine
the process by which goods and services are produces, distributed and consumed

political science
the examination of the organization and operation of governments

social Darwinism
survival of the fittest…. Spencer followed this theory.

function
the consequence that an element of society produces for the maintenance of its social system.. Durkheim was particularly interested in the function of religion maintaining social order.

Verstehen
this term involves and attempt to understand the meanings individuals attach to their actions

ideal type
a description comprised of the essential characteristics of a feature of society

theory
an explanation of the relationships among particular phenomenon

theoretical perspectives
a school of thought is a general set of assumptions about the nature of things

psychology’s theoretical perspectives
outlines specific ideas in the nature of social life

functionalists perspective
views society as a set of interrelated “parts” that work together to produce a stable social system

society
is held together through consensus

manifest function
the intended consequence of some element of society

latent function
unintended consequences of some element of society

dysfunction
negative consequences of some element of society

Herbert Spencer
Darwin/Biology social change, vatural, *social Darwinism, conflict theory, thought the same way as Marx

interactionist perspective
individual in society, how everyone interact, meaning the attach to what they do emphasis:symbolic interaction (example: symbol -is anything that stands for anything else)

conflict Perspective
what forces in society promote completion and chance, how do those in pw emphasis on non-violent competition/inequality (between groups) how do those in pw exercise it over others

competition
competition over scarce resources
resources=wealth=pw

Auguste Comte
*scientific method, sociology, *he studied cause of social change, statics: bonds, dynamics: cause change

Karl Marx
emphasized 2 economic classes the Bourgeoisie and the proletariat, conflict inevitable, believed in classless society, represents conflict theory, thought like spencer

Emile Durkheim
studied social order, parts of society= “function”, doubled down on scientific method, thought like comte

C. Wright Mills
defined sociological imagination which is the ability to see the connection between the larger world and your personal life

latent vs. manifest functions
latent function: unintended consequences of some element of society
manifest function: the intended consequence of some element of society