Shift from premodern to modern societies and death Essay

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Doctrines and rites environing decease and deceasing have altered during the class of human history ( Aries,1974 ) . An early decease, or decease at a immature age was a common happening in pre modern society ( Kalish,1985 ) Developments and advancement in medical and societal promotions may assist us unrecorded thirster, but they still do non reply inquiries sing life after decease.

Prior to the industrial revolution, society was preponderantly self-sufficing. People self- medicated or changed everyday as there was a deficiency of trust in the medical profession ( Lupton 2003 ) . Illich ( 1990 ) maintains that in society the cardinal gloss of decease regulates the customary thoughts sing decease and these thoughts are formulated within myths “ institutional constructions ” and the modernness of a peculiar period in clip. In Pre-modern times there were many imposts and rites environing decease and deceasing including the entombment of objects `that may be of usage in the hereafter, the dead were frequently mourned and waked in the place topographic point and where wealth allowing memorials or markers erected.

Some societies feared decease and others had no fright of decease as they identified deceasing and decease as a passing from one life to the following and rites, traditions and imposts grew in conformity with society at the clip, a peculiar illustration of this would be the instructions of the Christian church in the West and Islam in the Middle East, these faiths and their doctrines were accepted as the usher environing deceasing, decease and the afterlife. ( DeSpelder & A ; Strickland, 2010 ) .

Rams ( 1981 ) suggests that public acknowledgment of decease mostly changed after the First World War and that an openness on the treatment of decease prohibited as society became more focussed on the pleasances of the 20th century. There is much treatment about the suppression of decease as an unfastened topic and this may be attributed to the fact that modern society does non hold the same intent in life as those in a pre- industrial society ( Giddens 1990 ) . It is suggested that modern society fells decease within an interfering and “ technological system ” associating to decease and death ( Moller 1996 ) and this system de-humanises society in its twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours personal businesss. The burden of covering with the death and the dead has been removed from the pre modern household and institutionalised within infirmaries, attention Centres and hospices with recognized keepers to ease decease and death.

Within western society more and more people are deceasing in infirmaries ( Seale, 2000 ) and this institutionalisation of decease and death has given rise to issues environing how to pass on decease and deceasing. Surveies have shown that there is opposing readings

in supplying information to patients with a hapless forecast with-holding information between staff and patient ( Glaser and Strauss, 1965 ; Knight and Field, 1981 ; Costello, 2001 ) or by encompassing an honestness to decease and death ( Field 1995 ) .

Early research ( Glaser and Strauss 1965 ) has been met with disapproval over the deficiency of survey into the emotional direction of a deceasing patient who receives information from a professional ( Timmermans,1994 ; Mamo, 1999 ) nevertheless Kubler-Ross was one of the innovators of the counsel for professionals working with the deceasing in her book “ On Death and Dying ” ( 1969 ) .

It appears that it is the medical professions ultimate end to keep life every bit long as possible and at all costs something which was non by and large available to those in a pre-modern society, this can about sanitize decease and deceasing as professionals will as Seymour ( 2000 ) suggests that ‘Intensive attention reflects the modern preoccupation with the command of disease and the obliteration of ‘untimely decease ‘ .


Throughout the ages there is merely one certainty that is guaranteed and that is we are traveling to decease at some phase, to some people this is a procedure to fear to others it is an juncture to welcome or accept as portion of life ‘s class. Pre modern societies were preponderantly encaged in endurance and sought consolation in nature and faith, nevertheless with scientific and proficient developments over the past one hundred old ages ; societies ‘ perceptual experiences on decease and deceasing have changed. To speak about decease openly is now a tabu topic ( Gorer 1955, ) , and the dead and deceasing are curtained off from sight of others.

Mentions sourced from Hyde ( 2011 ) Study Notes:

Costello, J. ( 2001 ) Nursing older deceasing patients: findings from an ethnographic survey of decease and deceasing in aged attention wards. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35 ( 1 ) , 59-68.

Field, D. ( 1995 ) ‘We did n’t desire him to decease on his ain ‘ – nurses histories of nursing deceasing patients. In B. Davey, A. Gray and C. Seale ( explosive detection systems ) Health and Disease: A Reader ( 2nd edition ) Buckingham: Open Univerity Press, 320-326.

Giddens, A. ( 1990 ) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Civil order.

Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. ( 1965 ) Awareness of Dying: Chicago: Aldine.

Lupton, D. ( 2003 ) Medicine as Culture Illness, Disease And The Body In Western Societies. ( Second Edition ) . London: Sage.

Mamo, L. ( 1999 ) Death and deceasing: meetings of emotion and consciousness. Sociology of Health and Illness 21 ( 1 ) 13-36.

Moller, D. ( 1996 ) Confronting Death: Valuess, Institutions and Human Mortality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Seale, C ( 2000 ) Changing forms of decease and deceasing. Social Science and Medicine 51 917-930.

Seymour, J.E. ( 2000 ) Negociating natural decease in intensive attention. Social Science and Medicine. 51 ( 8 ) 1241-1250.

Timmermans, S. ( 1994 ) Diing of consciousness: the theory of consciousness contexts revisited. Sociology of Health and Illness, 16, 22-39.

Mentions: ( Primary Sources )

Rams, P. ( 1974 ) . Western attitudes towards deathfrom the in-between ages to the present. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.

DeSpelder, L. A. , & A ; Strickland, A. L. ( 2010 ) . ( 9th Ed. ) The last dance-encountering decease and death. London. McGraw-Hill Education,

Illich I. ( 1990 ) Limits to Medicine. Harmondsworth. Penguin,

Kalish, Richard A. ( 1985 ) . Death, heartache, and caring relationships. ( 2nd Ed. ) Monterey, Brooks/Cole. p113

Knight M. and Field, D. ( 1981 ) A soundless confederacy: header with deceasing malignant neoplastic disease patients on an acute surgical ward. Journal of Advanced Nursing 6, 221-229.

Kubler-Ross, E. ( 1969 ) . On decease and deceasing. New York. Collier Books

Short Answer Assessment 2

Outline two or more sociological positions on mental unwellness.


There are four important positions that are pertinent to the survey of mental unwellness from a sociologist ‘s point of view: societal structural linguistics, societal building, labelling theory and feminism ( Hyde et al 2004a ) for the intent of this assignment this pupil will look at two of these positions: labelling theory and feminism:

Labeling theory:

The rule usage of the labelling theory to mental unwellness is accredited to Thomas Scheff ( 1966 ) . Uninterested in the cause of the mental unwellness he concentrated on how it was labelled and how there was a “ violating behavior ” that is more predisposed towards the classification of mental unwellness as are “ aberrant ” actions that can non be accepted as normal are apportioned to the categorization of mental unwellness.

Once the individual is labelled as mental ailment, ( Scheff 1966b ) . this label accompanies the individual through farther societal interactions and may take to societal exclusion throughout their life, the individual besides be more predisposed to accepting the label and the character of a mentally sick patient.

“ labelling theoreticians maintain that the procedure of medicalisation, which is underpinned by the cultural authorization of psychopathology and its societal map of control, really creates mental unwellness. ” ( Hyde et al 2004b ) . Both medicalisation and societal control are core rules refering to wellness and unwellness in the field of sociology, where by medical professional ‘s label or categorise actions of others as pervert.

Labeling may besides deny a individual ‘s singularity and in some instances become self-fulfilling where by a individual labelled may react to their label by moving in a manner that is consistent with the label and hence corroborating the label that was originally applied ( Comer 1998 ) . Peoples react with greater negativeness to former mental patients than to people with the same symptoms but non labelled. ( Farina 1992 )

Feminist Positions:

Surveies have shown that there is an elevated hazard of depression and affectional psychoses which can be partially attributed to the negative attitudes towards adult females, deficiency of recognition for their work, fewer chances for them in instruction and employment, and greater hazard of domestic force ( WHO 2000 ) , whilst work forces are more susceptible to schizophrenia and alcohol related unwellness ‘ than adult females ( Pilgrim & A ; Rogers, 1999 ) .

For the greater portion of the 19th and twentieth Centuries there were higher Numberss of adult females in mental establishments as highlighted in “ feminization of lunacy ‘ ( Showalte cited in Code 2000 ) this has been linked to the complete laterality of males in the medical profession domineering and exercising control over adult females ‘s gender and regulation restrictions over the parametric quantities of “ normalcy and aberrance ” ( Chesler, 1972 ) . A male fascistic society felt threatened by adult females ‘s gender and adult females in general, any evildoing or divergence from the societal sensed normalcy resulted in adult females been labelled as mentally sick.

Social functions can hold a negative impact on the mental wellness of adult females, those who have had the stereo-typical function of adult female, that of a homemaker and/or female parent have a higher hazard of depression, to add abuse to injury the passing of the maternal function for those whose life revolved around raising kids besides have an increased hazard of depression in mid-life, due to societal isolation.

Recent surveies found that adult females restricted to the house reported perceptibly higher degrees of hurt than adult females and males in employment ( Whelan et. al. , 1991: ) . and it was besides reported that adult females working outside the place greater psychological hurt than employed work forces.

The stereo typewriting of maleness and muliebrity within the psychiatric profession has been shown by Broverman et Al. ( 1970 ) and that whilst a healthy grownup corresponds to the male stereotype, females are benchmarked against an grownup who is psychologically unhealthy, this is slightly of an oxymoron as adult females whose actions fit in to the Orthodox doctrines of the female function are exposed to been labelled as “ psychologically unstable ”

Busfield ( 1996, p. 117 cited in Casey and Long ) states: “ Since gender is such a cardinal characteristic of societal dealingss and a major dimension of societal difference, gender necessarily features in the buildings of mental upset. ” From a sociological position the true beginning adult females ‘s angst may perchance be veiled in the preparedness of medical practicians to order inordinate psychiatric medicines and therefore queering adult females obtaining non-discriminatory societal control in their lives. ( Pilgrim & A ; Rogers, 1992 ) .

Mentions sourced from Hyde ( 2011 ) Study Notes:

Broverman, I.K. , Broverman, D.M. , Clarkson, F.E. , Rosenkrantz, P.S. , and Vogel, S.R. ( 1970 ) ‘Sex-role stereotypes and clinical opinions of mental wellness ‘ , Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 34: 1-7.

Chesler, P. ( 1972 ) Women and Madness. New York: Doubleday.

Pilgrim, D. and Rogers, A. ( 1993 ) Sociology of Mental Health and Illness, Buckingham: Open University Press.

Scheff, Thomas J. ( 1966a ) Being Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory. Chicago: Aldine.

Whelan, C.T. , Hannan, D.F. and Creighton, S. ( 1991 ) Unemployment, Poverty and Psychological Distress, General Research Series, No. 150, Dublin: Economic and Social Research Institute.

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