Semester1 Exam Flashcard

Chemistry
study of composition of substances and the changes they undergo
Chemists
solve problems dealing with the ingredients the world is made of
Pure Science
gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge
Applied Science
solve a specific problem
Matter (2 things)
stuff
inertia
Inertia
resistance to change in motion or resistance to change in direction or rate/speed
Mass (3 things)
Amount of matter in an object
measure of inertia
does not change from place to place
Weight (3 things)
Measure of the force of gravity
between 2 objects
changes with location
Substance
A chemical that has matter and a definite and uniform composition
Energy (2 things)
property possessed by matter
ability to do work
Potential Energy (2 things)
Energy due to the objects position
stored energy
Kinetic Energy
energy of motion
Radiant Energy
goes in all directions
transferred by electromagnetic waves
Theory
statement that gives a tentative explanation based on supported hypothesis
Law
known to happen without error, but doesn’t explain how it happens
Constant
stays constant in an experiment
Control (2 things)
Doesn’t change
the reference
Volume
Amount of space an object takes up
Temperature
measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles
Time
seconds
cesium atomic clock
Density
how closely molecules are packed together
Heterogeneous Mixture
Made up of more that one thing, not uniform throughout
Homogeneous Mixture
a solution made of 2 or more particles not chemically bonded together but uniform throughout
Solute
dissolved material
Solvent
dissolving material
Morality
way of measuring the concentration of a solution
ratio between solute and solvent
Intensive Physical Property
a property not dependent on the amount of matter present
Extensive Physical Property
a property that is dependent on the amount or how much of the matter is present
Law of Multiple Proportions
John Dalton created
found that compounds composed of some elements can occur in different ratios
Law of Definate Proportions
Joseph Proust
stated that regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass
Newtonian Physics
describes normal particles moving at normal speed and the laws that pertain to them
Quantum Physics
describes extremely small particles moving at speeds close to the speed of light
Spectroscopy
the study of the interaction between matter or substances and radiant energy
Continuous Spectrum
white light gives you an uninterrupted spectrum of light
Emission spectrum
created by the light emitted when the e- drop from their excited state to lower energy states
Absorption Spectrum
spectrum created bu determining the energy absorbed by the atom as it moves up to higher energy states
Photoelectric effect
Albert Einstein
found when light shines on a metal surface at a very specific frequency,the metal emits electrons
Wave Particle Duality of Nature
Louis de Broglie
described the behavior of the electron in orbit
predicts that all moving particles have wave like characteristics
and waves have properties of moving particles
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
found that it is impossible to make any measurement of an object without disturbing the object
Schrodinger Wave Equation
mechanical view of the atom
Quantum Theory
describes the mathematical wave properties of electrons and other small particles
Atomic Orbitals
A 3D region around the nucleus that indicated the probable location of electron
Periodic Table
a chart that organizes info about the elements location in the table allows you to predict properties
Joseph Dobereiner
Triads
Made chart of groups of 3 elements that had similar properties
John Newlands
Law of octives
arranged in order of atomis mass
apperared to be a repetition of properties every eight element
Law of Octaves
same properties repeat every 8th element
Mendeleev’s Periodic table
connection between atomic mass and properties
Mendeleev’s Periodic Law
properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
Chemical Bond
force that holds 2 atoms together
Ionic Bond
Bond composed of charged particles formed by losing or gaining electrons that are electrostatically held together

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