semester exam review Flashcard

Bonding theory and electronegativity
bonding theory – aka the octet rule – every atom wants to fill its outermost shell to achieve balance

electronegativity – the willingness an atom will bond with another atom

ionic bonding
the transferring of an electron(s) between a metal and nonmetal
covalent bonding
the sharing of an electron(s) between 2 nonmetal atoms
carbonate
CO4 2-
Sulfate
SO4 -2
Phosphate
PO4 3-
Hydroxide
OH-
Nitrate
NO3 2-
Ammonium
NH4 +
Molecular compounds
pure substances composed of molecules
have low melting points and boiling points
found in every state (solid,gas,liquid)
synthesis
A+B->AB
Decomposition
AB->A+B
Combustion
A+O2->CHO+CO2
Single Replacement
AB+C->AC+B
Double Replacement
AB+CD->AD+CB
Avogadro’s Number
The number of particles in a mole
Solution, Solvent, Solute
Solution – Homogenous mixture; uniform through the mixture on a molecular scale

Solute – Substance that is dissolved or can be dissolved
ex. salt
Solvent – Substances that dissolves solutes
ex. water

Molarity
moles per liter
Characteristics of Acids and Bases
acids:
-low pH
-dissolve in water
-found in 3 states of matter
-conduct electricity
-blue litmus paper->red
-sour
Bases:
-conduct electricity
-red litmus paper->blue
-bitter
-slippery feel
Alcohols
replaces an H with OH
ex. propanol
halocarbons
contains a halogen
chloropropane
carboxylic acid
double bond with O and single bond with OH
propanoic acid
Amines
H replaced by NH2
propanamine or propyl amine
aldehydes
H replaced by a double bond with O at the END of compound
propanal
ketone
H replaced with double bond with O somewhere in the middle
Propanone
ether
hydrocarbon with O atom between 2 carbon atoms
CH3 – CH2 – O – CH2 – CH3
Ester
a HC with double bond with O and single bond with O between 2 carbons
Proteins
-essential components of all cells
-composed of amino acids (monomers)
-long chains of amino acids called polypeptides
-make muscles
-structural material-hair, nails, tendons
-antibodies-disease protection
-transports blood
Carbohydrates
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
contain hydroxyl and aldehyde or ketone group
produceed by photosynthesis
Monosaccharides–simple sugar ex glucose
Dinosaccharides – 2 sugars ex sucrose
polysaccharides-many sugars
-long chain of monomers
store energy in plantsm abunakm irgabs
structural compound in plants

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