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Study and Review Guide to Accompany Psychology In Action 5th Edition Karen Huffman / Palomar College Mark Vernoy / Palomar College Judith Vernoy Study and Review Guide Prepared by: Karen Huffman / Palomar College Richard Hosey / Palomar College Study and Review GuideNo part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508) 750-8400, fax (508) 750-4470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 05 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, (212) 850-6008, E-mail: [email protected] COM. To order books or for customer service call 1-800-CALL-WILEY (225-5945). ISBN 0-000-00000-0 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide.

TIPS FOR USING THIS STUDY AND REVIEW GUIDE

Congratulations! Your decision to buy and use this study and review guide is an important step toward student success. It is carefully designed to help you learn the most important material in your textbook (in the shortest possible time), to improve your performance on quizzes and exams, and ltimately to help you achieve the highest grade possible in your first introduction to psychology course. This study and review guide is coordinated with your text, Psychology in Action (5th ed. ), and is divided into seven major sections: Chapter Outlines, Learning Objectives, Key Terms, Active Learning Exercises, Chapter Overview, Self-Tests, and Answers. These seven sections are explained and identified throughout each chapter with the following boxes and icons: OUTLINE (Survey & Question) This outline is intended to help you survey the chapter.

As you read through the various sections, write down any questions or comments that come to mind in the space provided. This is a valuable part of active learning and the SQ4R method. It not only makes your reading time more enjoyable and active, but it also increases your retention and understanding of the material.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Read, Recite & wRite)

While reading the chapter, stop periodically and recite (or repeat in your own words) the answers to the following learning objectives.

It will also help your retention if you write your answer in the space provided. (Page numbers refer to the text Psychology in Action, 5th Ed. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide.

KEY TERMS (Review)

The review step in the SQ4R method is very important to your performance on quizzes and exams. Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to define the following terms.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISES (Recite)

The recite step in the SQ4R method requires you to be an ACTIVE learner. By completing the following exercises, you will test and improve your mastery of the chapter material, which will also improve your performance on quizzes and exams. Answers to some exercises appear at the end of this study and review guide chapter.

CHAPTER OVERVIEW (Review)

The following CHAPTER OVERVIEW provides a narrative overview of the main topics covered in the chapter.

Like the Visual Summary found at the end of each chapter in the text, this narrative summary provides a final opportunity to review chapter material.

SELF-TESTS (Review & wRite)

Completing the following SELF-TESTS will provide immediate feedback on how well you have mastered the material. In the fill-in exercises, write the appropriate word or words in the blank spaces. The matching exercise requires you to match the terms in one column to their correct definitions in the other.

For the multiple-choice questions in Practice Tests I and II, circle or underline the correct answer. When you are unsure of any answer, be sure to highlight or specially mark the item and then go back to the text for further review. Correct answers are provided at the end of this study and review guide chapter. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide ANSWERS The following answers to active learning exercises, fill-ins, matching exercises, and practice tests 1 and 2 provide immediate feedback on your mastery of the material. Try not to simply memorize the answers.When you are unsure of your “guess” or make an error, be sure to go back to the textbook and carefully review.

This will greatly improve your scores on classroom exams and quizzes. Did you notice that most of these sections have terms in parentheses, such as (Survey & Question), (Read, Recite & wRite), and (Review & wRite)? This is because both your study and review guide and text, Psychology in Action, are designed around the best-known studying technique—the SQ4R method. The symbols “S,Q, R, R, R” stand for: Survey Before you begin reading each chapter of the text, you should skim it.Note the title, major headings and subheadings, and figure captions. Then read the interim summaries that come before each set of review questions sprinkled throughout the chapter.

Finally, carefully examine the visual summary at the end of the chapter. This survey helps organize the material into a larger unit that will help focus your attention during later careful reading and studying. The “Survey” step also provides a “map” or “big picture” of the chapter contents. If you were new to the United States and planning a car trip from California to New York, you wouldn’t jump in your car and simply start driving.However, most students do jump into their texts and start reading the first page with no idea of what road signs to look for or what lies ahead.

To make the most of your car trip to New York, you would begin with a large map of the entire United States and try to plan the most efficient route. Similarly, since you are “new” to the country of psychology, you need to begin with a large overall road map–the SURVEY step of the SQ4R method. Question As you are surveying the material, ask yourself questions about what you are going to read. (What did your instructor say about this topic when it was assigned?What questions do the headings and subheadings suggest? What will I learn in this chapter? How can I use this information in my Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide everyday life? ) Questions aid retention because they require active participation on your part and increase personal relevance of the material. Read The survey and question procedure provides a natural lead-in to careful reading.

While reading the chapter, attempt to answer the questions you generated, as well as paying close attention to all figures, tables, and boldfaced terms. Read in small units from one major heading to the next.In Chapter 6 of your textbook, you will note that cramming or massed learning is not a good method for studying, retention, or retrieval of information. Space your studying throughout the time period allocated by your instructor for the assigned chapters. This method of “distributed versus massed practice” has been scientifically proven to be more effective than cramming because you retain more information and will remember it longer. Recite “Recite” means to go over what you just read by orally summarizing, making notes, and/or completing the review questions in the text (and the active learning exercises in this study and review guide).

Have you ever found yourself having to reread sections of a text because your mind wandered off as you were studying? Do you find that you can spend hours studying and yet remember little of what you’ve read? This is because you are not “reciting. ” A well-known principle of education states that learning is much more effective when people are actively responding to the material than when they are passive recipients. By orally summarizing, taking notes, completing the review questions and active learning exercises, you will be taking an active role in your studying—and your grades will improve! ReviewReviewing is a combination of the total SQ4R formula. Briefly repeat the survey and questioning you did before you began the chapter, reread all your notes (from the text, your class lecture notes, and notes in this study guide). Check your memory by completing the review questions in the text and the self-tests in this study and review guide.

Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide wRite Writing is a very important element in learning. By writing a response and taking notes while reading or listening to lectures, you will retain more than simply listening to a lecture or silently reading a text.This study and review guide is purposely designed in a workbook format to allow space for writing responses to the learning objectives, your definitions for the key terms, your responses to the activities, and your answers to the sample self-tests. Taking this study and review guide with you to class is also an important aid in organizing your lecture notes.

The SQ4R method can be used with any textbook. However, your Psychology in Action (5th ed. ) textbook and this study and review guide have been carefully designed to maximize this technique. We hope you will try this method and actively use this study and review guide.

Research finds those students who purchase and USE study guides generally do better on exams and overall course performance. Your text has numerous “ tools for student success,” your instructor is available to assist and inspire you, and this study and review guide is here to guide and support your studying efforts. The next step is yours. Best wishes for an exciting journey in the new country called “Psychology. ” Karen Huffman/Palomar College Richard Hosey/Palomar College Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide C hapter 1 Introducing PsychologyOUTLINE (Survey & Question) This outline is intended to help you survey the chapter. As you read through the various sections, write down any questions or comments that come to mind in the space provided.

This is a valuable part of active learning and the SQ4R method. It not only makes your reading time more enjoyable and active, but it also increases retention and understanding of the material.

TOPIC NOTES

I. UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGY

A. The Goals of Psychology: To Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change Behavior B.

Areas of Psychology: A Field of Diversity C. Psychology in Your Life: Separating Fact from Fiction

II. PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

A. Experimental Research: The Study of Cause and Effect Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide B.

Research Highlight: Love on a Suspension Bridge C. Nonexperimental Research: Studying the Correlates of Behavior D. Correlation versus Experimental Methods: Which Is Appropriate? E. Evaluating Research: Are the Findings Significant? F. Active Learning: Becoming a Better Consumer of Scientific Research,

III. ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY

A.

Research Ethics: Respecting the Rights of Research Participants B. Animals in Research: Is it Ethical? C.Clinical Practice Ethics: Respecting the Rights of Clients,

IV. SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY

A. Structuralism and Functionalism: The Earliest Schools B. The Psychoanalytic and Gestalt Schools: European Contributions Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide C.

Behaviorism: The Study of Observable Behaviors D. Humanistic Psychology: Emphasizing the Uniqueness of the Individual E. Cognitive Psychology: The Return to Thought Processes F. Psychobiology: The Brain and Behavior G.

The Evolutionary Perspective: Natural Selection and Human Behavior H. Cultural Psychology: The Influence of Culture and Ethnic Practice on BehaviorI. Gender and Cultural Diversity: Universal and Culturally Specific Behaviors J. Psychology Today: An Eclectic View LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Read, Recite & wRite) While reading the chapter, stop periodically and recite (or repeat in your own words) the answers to the following learning objectives.

It will also help your retention if you write your answer in the space provided. (Page numbers refer to the text Psychology in Action, 5th Ed. ) 1. Define psychology, and explain overt and covert behavior (p.

4-5). Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 2.List and discuss the four goals of psychology, and explain the difference between basic and applied research (pp. 5-6). 3.

List and describe the ten major areas of psychology (p. 6-8). 4. Describe the difference between psychology and pseudopsychology (p. 8-10). 5.

Define or describe the following components related to scientific research in general: research methodology, data, the study of cause and effect, theory, and hypothesis (pp. 10-13). 6. Define or describe the following components related to experimental research: independent and dependent variables, experimental and control conditions, and placebos and their effects (pp.

2-14). 7. List and describe the following possible sources of, and solutions for, bias in research: experimenter bias and the double-blind experiment; ethnocentrism and the need for multiple, culturally different researchers; and sample bias, including the difference between populations and samples, and the need for random assignment of participants to experimental and control conditions (pp. 14-15). 8. List and describe four possible explanations for the results of the Dutton and Aron “bridge study” (p.

16). 9.Discuss the merits and limitations of the following nonexperimental research techniques: naturalistic observation, survey, and case study (pp. 17-19).

Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 10. Explain the difference between correlational (nonexperimental) and experimental methods of research, and describe the three ways two variables may be correlated (pp. 19-21). 11. Describe the four basic criteria used to ensure that research findings are accurate and legitimate.

Define statistics, and describe the relevance of statistical significance and replication in determining the legitimacy of research results (pp. 22-23). 12.Discuss the issue of ethics in animal research, and describe the following ethical considerations for human research and clinical practice: informed consent, debriefing, deception, and client confidentiality (pp. 23-25). 13.

Describe the similarities and differences between the following major schools of psychology: structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalytic, gestalt, behaviorism, humanistic, cognitive, psychobiology, and evolutionary (pp. 26-32). 14. Define culture, and describe cultural psychology and culture’s influence on behavior; discuss how researchers determine whether behavior is culturally universal or culturally specific (pp. 233).

15. List the six perspectives in psychology today, and explain the eclectic approach, which is prevalent in modern psychology (p. 33). KEY TERMS (Review) The review step in the SQ4R method is very important to your performance on quizzes and exams.

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to define the following terms. Applied Research: ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review GuideBasic Research: __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Behavior: ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Behaviorism: ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Case Study: _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Cognitive Psychology: ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Control Condition: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Correlation: _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Covert: _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Culture: ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Cultural Psychology: _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review GuideData: _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Debriefing: _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Dependent Variable: ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Double-Blind Experiment: _________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Eclectic Approach: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Ethnocentrism: __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Ethology: ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Evolutionary Perspective: _________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Experiment: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Experimental Condition: __________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ __ Experimenter Bias: ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review GuideFunctionalism: __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Gestalt: ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Gestalt Psychology: ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Humanistic Psychology: __________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Hypothesis: _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Independent Variable: ____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Information Processing Approach: __________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Introspection: ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Naturalistic Observation: __________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Overt: _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review GuidePlacebo: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Placebo Effect: _________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Population: _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Pseudopsychologies: _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Psychoanalytic Theory: ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Psychobiology: _________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Psychology: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Psychotherapy: _________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Replicate: ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Research Methodology: ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Sample: ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review GuideSample Bias: ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Sociobiology: ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Statistically Significant: ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Statistics: ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Stimulus: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Structuralism: ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Surveys: _______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Theory: ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Unconscious: ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Variables: ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISES (Recite) The recite step in the SQ4R method requires you to be an ACTIVE learner. By completing the following exercises, you will test and improve your mastery of the chapter material, which will also improve your performance on quizzes and exams.Answers to some exercises appear at the end of this study guide chapter.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE I

For each of the three studies:• Decide whether the study is correlational or experimental.• If the study is correlational, briefly describe how the variables are related and whether the correlation is positive, negative, or zero.If the study is experimental, identify the independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV). Study I A Dartmouth study found that lifetime earnings for women who graduate from college is approximately the same as that of men who graduate from high school. Study II An Australian study found that MSG does not cause people to be sick, as previously reported.

The researcher informed participants he was studying ingredients in a new soft drink and fed them either MSG or a placebo in the drink. The same number and type of symptoms were found in both the MSG and the placebo groups. Study III USA Today reported a major University study that found couples who live together before marriage are more likely to divorce than couples who don’t.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE II

To help you understand and appreciate the complexity of the experimental method, think of a specific problem or topic that you are interested in studying. For example, “Does caffeine increase studying effectiveness? ” Now answer the following: 1.

What would be your hypothesis? Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide 2. What would be the independent and dependent variable(s)? 3. List possible experimental controls for the experiment. 4.

Could your hypothesis also be tested with nonexperimental methods? If so, describe them.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE III

Applying Abstract Thinking (A Cognitive Skill) In Chapter 1 of your textbook, you learned useful research terminology that can be used to also evaluate reports from politicians, advertisers, teachers, the news media, and even close friends. The following exercise will allow you to actively evaluate these sources of information.Read each “research” report and decide what is the primary problem or research limitation. In the space provided, make one of the following marks: CC = The report is misleading because correlational data are used to suggest causation. CG = The report is inconclusive since there was no control group.

EB = The results of the research were unfairly influenced by experimenter bias. SB = The results of the research are questionable because of sample bias. _____ 1. William owns a company in New York City that makes shoes for women.

He is concerned with slumping sales and decides to conduct a survey in one of his factories to determine how female employees feel about shoes produced in Italy. _____ 2 .At a major league baseball park, researchers found that beer and soft-drink sales are highest when color advertising is used on all billboards. _____ 3. After failing an important exam in his psychology class, Alex decides to personally interview fellow classmates regarding their opinion of the professor’s teaching techniques. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide

CHAPTER OVERVIEW (Review)

The following CHAPTER OVERVIEW provides a narrative overview of the main topics covered in the chapter.

Like the Visual Summary found at the end of each chapter in the text, this narrative summary provides a final opportunity to review chapter material.I. Understanding Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior.Psychologists use scientific research methods to investigate overt, or observable, behaviors and covert, or hidden, behaviors such as thoughts and feelings. The goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict, and change behavior.

Psychologists conduct research and can specialize in several areas, including clinical, counseling, educational, developmental, social, industrial and organizational psychology, and neuropsychology. Basic research studies theoretical issues; applied research seeks to solve specific problems.II. Experimental Research Research methodology includes experimental techniques designed to investigate cause-and-effect relationships and nonexperimental techniques that describe behavior.An experiment begins with a hypothesis or possible explanation for behavior.

Independent variables are the factors the experimenter manipulates, and dependent variables are measurable behaviors of the participants. Experimental control includes assigning participants to groups and holding extraneous variables constant.III. Nonexperimental Research Research methodology includes experimental techniques designed to investigate cause-and-effect relationships and nonexperimental techniques that provide descriptions of behavior. Nonexperimental research techniques are used to obtain descriptions of behavior. Naturalistic observation is used to study behavior in its natural habitat.

Surveys use interviews or questionnaires to obtain information about a sample of participants. Individual case studies are in-depth studies of a single participant. Experiments enable us to determine causes for behaviors, whereas correlational relationships only enable us to predict behaviors. Psychologists use statistics to judge whether research findings are significant or due to chance.IV. Ethics in Psychology Psychologists are expected to maintain high ethical standards in their relations with human and animal research participants and in therapeutic relationships with clients.

The APA has published specific guidelines detailing these ethical standards. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review GuideV. Schools of Psychology Structuralists sought to identify elements of consciousness and how these elements form the structure of the mind. Functionalists studied how mental processes help individuals adapt to their environment. Freud developed psychoanalytic theory to explain psychological problems reportedly caused by unconscious conflicts.

The Gestalt school studied organizing principles of perceptual processes. Behaviorism emphasizes observable behaviors and the ways they are learned. Humanistic psychology focuses on inner meanings and assumes our nature is positive and growth seeking. Cognitive psychology examines reasoning and mental processes. Psychobiology attempts to explain behavior as complex chemical and biological events in the brain.The evolutionary perspective argues that certain behavioral characteristics have evolved through the process of natural selection.

Cultural psychology studies the influence of culture and ethnic practices on people’s behavior.

SELF-TESTS (Review ; wRite)

Completing the following SELF-TESTS will provide immediate feedback on how well you have mastered the material. In the fill-in exercises, write the appropriate word or words in the blank spaces. The matching exercise requires you to match the terms in one column to their correct definitions in the other. For the multiplechoice questions in Practice Tests I and II, circle or underline the correct answer.

When you are unsure of any answer, be sure to highlight or specially mark the item and then go back to the text for further review. Correct answers are provided at the end of this study guide chapter.

FILL-IN EXERCISES

1. Your text defines psychology as the ______ (p. 4).

2. The goals of psychology are to ______ (p. 5). 3.

Basic research studies ______, while applied research is conducted to _____ (pp. 5-6). 4. The causes of behavior can be determined by using the ______ method of research (p. 11).

5. A(n) ______ is a factor that is selected and manipulated by the experimenter and is totally independent of anything the research participant does (p. 12). 6. Generalizability, or the application of research to a group or population, is most directly affected by ______ (p. 15).

Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide 7. When researchers ______ their research participants, they explain the reasons for conducting the research and clear up any misconceptions or concerns (p. 24). 8. Explaining behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is key to the ______ perspective (p. 29).

9. ______ emphasizes the importance of the inner, subjective self and stresses the positive side of human nature (p. 30). 10.

The six steps in the SQ4R method for active reading are ______, ______, ______, ______, ______, and ______ (p. 38). MATCHING EXERCISES Column A a. b.

c. d. e. f.

g. h. i. j.Behaviorism Cognitive Psychology Cultural Psychology Evolutionary Perspective Functionalism Gestalt Psychology Humanistic Psychology Psychobiology Psychoanalytic Theory Structuralism. 1.

____ 2. ____ 3. ____ 4. ____ 5.

____ 6. ____ 7. ____ 8. ____ 9.

____ 10. ____ Column B Studies how mental processes help adaptation. Emphasizes influence of the unconscious mind. Focuses on mental processing of information. Focuses on sensations and feelings and perception. Studies the biology of behavior.

Believes the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Derived from theory of evolution and natural selection. Studies influence of culture and ethnicity on behavior. Focuses on objective or observable behaviors.Emphasizes inner, subjective self and positive nature.

PRACTICE TEST I

1. Which of the following are the goals of psychology? a. describe, manipulate, control, and examine behavior b. describe, explain, predict, and change behavior c. predict, control, examine, and change behavior d. manipulate, control, explain, and change behavior 2.

Basic research is conducted to study _____. a. basic psychological needs such as hunger, socialization, and the need for praise b. theoretical questions that may or may not have real-world applications c. the goals of psychology d.

a specific real-world problem Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide 3. Applied research is conducted to study _____. a. how people apply knowledge in an educational setting b. theoretical questions that may or may not have real-world applications c. the goals of psychology d.

a specific real-world problem Amanda studies animals to gain insight into human behavior. She is a(n) _____ psychologist. a. comparative b. evolutionary c.

developmental d. interspecies The belief that behavior in your culture is typical of behavior in all other cultures is one definition of _____. a. ideology b.

ethnocentrism c. prejudice d. ethnic typing Only the experiment allows one to investigate _____. a. relationships b. correlations c.

causation d. he goals of psychology An educated guess or a possible explanation for a behavior being studied, that is expressed as a prediction or a statement of cause and effect is a(n) _____. a. correlation b. experiment c. hypothesis d.

theory 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. An experimenter wishes to see if there is a difference between two types of memory techniques.

She teaches one group of participants Technique A and another group Technique B. Then she gives each group a list of words to memorize. Two weeks later she tests the participants to see how many of the words they have remembered. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? a. number of words in the list b.

memory techniques c. sex of the experimenter d. number of words remembered.Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide9. What is the independent variable in the experiment described in the previous question? a. number of words in the list b.

memory techniques c. sex of the experimenter d. number of words remembered 10. When participants are not exposed to any amount or level of the independent variable, they are members of the _____. a.

control condition b. experimental condition c. observation group d. out-of-control group 11. The tendency of experimenters to influence the results of their experiment in an expected direction is called _____.

a. experimenter bias b. control bias c. observational bias d. experimental bias 12.When neither the researcher nor the participants in an experiment know whether the treatment or independent variable has been given to any participant, the research design can be called _____.

a. reliable b. double-blind c. valid d.

deceptive 13. When researchers systematically observe the behavior of animals or humans in their natural state or habitat, they are conducting a(n) _____. a. experiment b. naturalistic observation c.

case study d. survey e. 14. _____ is generally credited with being the founder of experimental psychology.

a. Sigmund Freud b. Wilhelm Wundt c. William James d. G. Stanley Hall Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide 15.

The school of psychology that sought to study the elements of conscious experience was _____. a. b. c. d.

unctionalism Gestalt behaviorism structuralism 16. William James was the leading force in the _____ school of psychology. a. b. c.

d. behaviorist functionalist structuralist humanistic 17. Who developed psychoanalytic theory? a. b.

c. d. Freud James Wundt Watson 18. Gestalt psychology studied the _____. a.

b. c. d. psyche perception of wholes elements of perception patterns of stimulus and response 19. Humanistic psychology emphasizes the _____.

a. b. c. d. psyche perception of wholes positive and growth seeking nature of humans inner thinking processes necessary for human interaction 20.

The information processing approach is used by _____. a. b. c.

d. umanistic psychologists behaviorists functionalists cognitive psychologists Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide.

PRACTICE TEST II

1. According to your text, _____ uses strict scientific methods to collect, analyze, and interpret information about behavior and mental processes. a. psychology b.

philosophy c. behaviorism d. research methodology You dread going to the grocery store because you got lost there when you were a child. This illustrates psychology’s goal of _____ behavior. a.

describing b. explaining c. predicting d. changing Someone who uses PET scans to compare brain processes in people with and without depression is called a _____. a.

health psychologist b. neuropsychologist c. sychiatrist d. PET technician _____ rely on nonscientific or deliberately fraudulent methods to explain personality. a. Pseudopsychologies b.

Sociologists c. Astronomers d. Counselors A _____ develops from an attempt to explain a set of interrelated data from several studies. a. hypothesis b.

correlation c. research study d. theory In an experiment, the researcher _____. a. isolates a single factor and examines its effects on a behavior b.

controls the dependent variable and measures the independent variable c. deceives subjects, manipulates variables, and makes correlations d. observes one behavior to the exclusion of all other variables 2. . 4. 5.

6. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide 7. In the statement, “This causes that,” this is the _____. a.

constant b. independent variable c. dependent variable d. hypothesis Experimenter bias occurs when the researcher _____.

a. studies only what is interesting to him or her b. changes the results to fit the hypothesis c. unintentionally provides subtle cues about the purpose of the study, which affects the results d. takes credit for the work done by his or her research assistants The total of all possible cases from which a sample is selected is called the _____.

a. subject pool b. population c. selection group d.

ontrol group 8. 9. 10. Someone who systematically records behavior in a participant’s normal habitat is engaged in _____.

a. b. c. d. naturalistic observation voyeurism a case study random observation 11. The only research method that allows you to make cause-and-effect statements about behavior is the _____.

a. representative survey b. controlled case study c. laboratory observation d.

experiment 12. The relationship between the color of your shoes and your teacher’s mood today can be called a _____. a. spurious correlation b. zero correlation c. random sampling d.

negative correlation Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide 13. Sometimes _____ is used in order to create a realistic situation with genuine reactions from participants. a. trickery b. deception c.

a nonmonetary incentive d. case observation 14. The explanation a research provides to participants about the research process when it is over is called a(n) _____. a.

case conference b. study’s footnote c. debriefing d. exit interview 15.

With regard to animal studies in psychology, the use of aversive treatment such as electrical shock is _____. a. extremely rare b. common for species that do not feel pain c. banned by animal care committees d. acceptable only if pain medication is provided 16. Which of the following terms are properly matched? a. b. c. d. sychoanalysis and uniqueness Gestalt and wholeness functionalism and unconscious conflict psychobiology and introspection 17. Observable behaviors are the primary focus in which of the following approaches to psychology? a. b. c. d. humanistic psychodynamic behaviorism cognitive 18. Someone who believes that behavior is the result of complex chemical and biological events within the brain is called a(n) _____. a. information processor b. ecological psychologist c. evolutionary psychologist d. psychobiologist Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide 19. A _____ emphasizes the common evolutionary history of all people and studies the biological bases of social behavior. a. ethologist b. ethnologist c. sociobiologist d. sychobiologist 20. The induction of alternate states of consciousness is a _____. a. b. c. d. cultural universal practice found only in Western cultures universal practice amongst adolescents, but not adults relatively new practice in the history of mankind ANSWERS The following answers to active learning exercises, fill-ins, matching exercises, and practice tests 1 and 2 provide immediate feedback on your mastery of the material. Try not to simply memorize the answers. When you are unsure of your “guess” or make an error, be sure to go back to the textbook and carefully review. This will greatly improve your scores on classroom exams and quizzes.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE I

Study I correlational, positive correlation; Study II experimental, IV = MSG or placebo, DV = symptoms of sickness; Study III correlational, positive.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE III

1. SB 2. CG 3. EB FILL-IN EXERCISES 1. scientific study of behavior and mental processes; 2. describe, explain, predict, and change; 3. theoretical questions, answer real-world questions; 4. experimental; 5. Independent variable; 6. sample bias; 7. debrief; 8. psychoanalytic; 9. Humanistic psychology; 10. survey, question, read, recite, review, and wRite. MATCHING EXERCISES a. 9, b. 3, c. 8, d. 7, e. 1, f. 6, g. 10, h. 5, i. 2, j. 4 Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide PRACTICE TEST I 1. b (p. ) 2. b (p. 5) 3. d (p. 6) 4. a (p. 7) 5. b (p. 15) 6. c (pp. 11, 21) 7. c (p. 11) 8. d (p. 13) 9. b (p. 12) 10. a (p. 13) 11. a (p. 15) 12. b (p. 15) 13. b (p. 17) 14. b (p. 28) 15. d (p. 28) 16. b (p. 28) 17. a (p. 29) 18. b (p. 29) 19. c (p. 30) 20. d (p. 31) PRACTICE TEST II 1. a (p. 4) 2. b (p. 5) 3. b (pp. 6-8) 4. a (p. 8) 5. d (p. 11) 6. a (p. 11) 7. b (p. 12) 8. c (p. 15) 9. b (p. 15) 10. a (p. 17) 11. d (p. 19) 12. b (p. 20) 13. b (p. 24) 14. c (p. 24) 15. a (p. 24) 16. b (p. 27) 17. c (p. 30) 18. d (p. 31) 19. c (p. 32) 20. a (p. 34) Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide C hapter 2 The Biological Bases of Behavior

OUTLINE (Survey ; Question)

This outline is intended to help you survey the chapter. As you read through the various sections, write down any questions or comments that come to mind in the space provided. This is a valuable part of active learning and the SQ4R method. It not only makes your reading time more enjoyable and active, but it also increases your retention and understanding of the material.

TOPIC NOTES I. THE NEURON

A. Structure of a Neuron: Three Basic Parts B. Resting Potential and Action Potential: To Transmit or Not to Transmit, That Is the Question II. CHEMICAL MESSENGERS A. Nervous System Messengers: Neurotransmitters B. Research Highlight: The Search for Better Painkillers C.Endocrine System Messengers: Hormones Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide D. The Hypothalamus III.

THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

A. The Somatic Nervous System: A Network for Sensory and Motor Messages B. The Autonomic Nervous System: Preparing for Fight or Flight IV.

THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

A. The Spinal Cord: The Link Between the Brain and the Body B. The Brain: The Body’s Control Center C. Gender and Cultural Diversity: Sexual Orientation and the Hypothalamus D. Gender and Cultural Diversity: Male and Female Differences in the Brain.

V. STUDYING THE BRAIN

A. Active Learning: Understanding Brain Anatomy and Function B. Anatomical Studies: From Cadavers to Computers C. Lesion Techniques: Studying the Brain Through Systematic Deactivation Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide D. Electrical Recording: Measuring Electrical Changes in the Brain E. Electrical Stimulation: Eliciting Brain Activity F. Split-Brain Research: Two Brains Rather Than One G. CAT, PET, and MRI: Techniques That Scan the Brain LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Read, Recite & wRite) While reading the chapter, stop periodically and recite (or repeat in your own words) the answers to the following learning objectives. It will also help your retention if you write your answer in the space provided. Page numbers refer to the text Psychology in Action, 5th Ed. ) 1. Define the two major divisions of the nervous system (p. 48). 2. Draw a neuron, label its parts, and describe the function of each part (pp. 48-49). 3. Describe the electrochemical process that changes a resting potential into an action potential, and explain the purpose of the sodium-potassium pump (pp. 49-53). 4. Define neurotransmitter and explain how neurotransmitters act to excite or inhibit action potentials (pp. 53-54). 5. Briefly explain how psychoactive drugs affect the synapse; describe the problems associated with morphine as a painkiller, and outline the scientific search for a new painkiller (pp. 55-56).Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 6. Describe the endocrine system and its major functions. Discuss the role of the hypothalamus within the endocrine system, and the concept of homeostasis (pp. 56-58). 7. List and the describe the functions of the two major subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS); explain the differences between an afferent and efferent pathway; and describe the interactions between and functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems (pp. 59-62). 8. List the two major subdivisions of the central nervous system (CNS) and describe the functions of the spinal cord (pp. 63-65). 9.Describe the cerebral cortex; identify the location of the four cortical lobes, and describe the functions of each lobe; identify the location of, and describe the function of each of the following cortical areas: motor control, association, projection, Broca’s, and Wernicke’s (pp. 66-69). 10. Identify the location of the subcortical areas of the brain and describe the functions of each part (corpus callosum, thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system); identify the parts of the limbic system involved with memory, aggression, and fear. Describe LeVay’s research regarding the brain and sexual orientation (pp. 69-73). 11. Identify the location of the cerebellum and the parts of the brain stem (pons, medulla, and reticular activating system); describe the functions of each of these parts of the brain (pp. 73-74). 12.Describe how male and female brains differ, including tasks that generally favor females and tasks that generally favor males (pp. 75-79). 13. Describe and explain the use of the following brain research techniques: anatomical dissection, lesion techniques, electrical recording, electrical stimulation, split-brain research, CAT, PET, and MRI (pp. 77-79, 81-83). Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 14. Describe the specialized and interdependent functions of the brain’s left and right hemispheres (pp. 80-81). KEY TERMS (Review) The review step in the SQ4R method is very important to your performance on quizzes and exams. Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to define the following terms.Action Potential: _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Afferent: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ All-or-Nothing Principle: _______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Association Areas: _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _______ Axon: ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Axon Terminal Buttons: ________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Brain: ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review GuideBrain Stem: _________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Broca’s Area: ________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography) Scan: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Central Nervous System (CNS): _________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Cerebellum: _________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Cerebral Cortex: _____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Corpus Callosum: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Dendrites: ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Dyslexia: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Efferent: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Electrodes: __________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review GuideElectroencephalogram (EEG): ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Endocrine System: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Frontal Lobes: _______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Homeostasis: ________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Hormones: _________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Hypothalamus: _______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Ions: ________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Lesion Technique: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Limbic System: ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Medulla: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Motor Control Area: __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Myelin: _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Nerve: _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Neurons: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Neurotransmitters: ___________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Occipital Lobes: _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Parasympathetic Nervous System: ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Parietal Lobes: ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan: _____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Pons: ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide Projection Areas: ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Psychoactive Drugs: __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Reflex Arc: __________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Reflexes: ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Resting Potential: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Reticular Activating System (RAS): ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Sodium-Potassium Pump: ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Soma: ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Somatic Nervous System (SNS): ________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Spinal Cord: _________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Sympathetic Nervous System: __________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review GuideSynapse: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Temporal Lobes: _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Thalamus: __________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Wernicke’s Area: _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISES (Recite) The recite step in the SQ4R method requires you to be an ACTIVE learner. By completing the following exercises, you will test and improve your mastery of the chapter material, which will also improve your performance on quizzes and exams. Answers to some exercises appear at the end of this study guide chapter.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE I

For each of the following behaviors, identify hich of the sensory projection areas would receive incoming neural impulses. Write down the cerebral lobes receiving the input (frontal, parietal, occipital, or temporal). 1. 2. Looking at a picture ____________________________. Feeling a rough texture with your right hand ____________________________. 3. Listening to music on headphones ____________________________. 4. Catching a baseball with your left hand____________________________. 5. Reading silently ____________________________.Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE II

Using information from Chapter 2, fill in the appropriate label or term in the space next to the corresponding number or letter.Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE III

Clarifying Terms and Concepts (A Cognitive Skill) An important element of active learning and critical thinking is clarity of thought. A clear thinker understands that simply defining a term is not evidence of true understanding. One must be able to extend basic definitions to higher, more complex applications. The following exercise will help clarify your understanding of brain terminology and function. The Setting You are a famous neurosurgeon who specializes in brain damage. In each of the following cases, make a “diagnosis” (using information from Chapter 2).Case 1: A 56-year-old female has suffered a recent stroke. She speaks in a curious manner resembling fluent English but the phrases make no sense. You find that she comprehends your verbal or written instructions perfectly and can even write them down, but cannot repeat them verbally. You diagnose the problem as a lesion in the __________. Case 2: A 7-year-old boy is having serious difficulties learning to read. At age 5, his corpus callosum was sectioned to prevent epileptic seizures. His mother points out that he is very intelligent and she cannot understand why reading is so difficult for him. You explain that his reading difficulties are probably related to the fact that __________.Case 3: An intelligent businessman comes to you and explains rather agitatedly that he awoke yesterday morning to find, much to his dismay, that he could no longer read. Your tests determine the following: 1. He is totally blind in the right visual field. 2. He speaks fluently and comprehends speech. 3. He can write with his right hand but cannot read what he has written. 4. He can copy written words but only with his left hand. You turn to your puzzled assistant and remark that this is indeed a tough one, but you are willing to bet you will find brain damage in at least two areas, which are the __________ and ____________. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide

CHAPTER OVERVIEW (Review)

The following CHAPTER OVERVIEW provides a narrative overview of the main topics covered in the chapter. Like the Visual Summary found at the end of each chapter in the text, this narrative summary provides a final opportunity to review chapter material.I. Neurons Neurons are cells that transmit information throughout the body. They have three main parts: dendrites, which receive information from other neurons; the soma, or cell body; and the axon, which sends neural information. At the end of the axon are small structures called axon terminal buttons that release chemicals called neurotransmitters. The axon is specialized for transmitting neural impulses, or action potentials.During times when no action potential is moving down the axon, the axon is at rest. The resting potential gives way to the action potential when a stimulus causes sodium and potassium ions to move across the axon membrane. Action potentials travel more quickly down myelinated axons.II. Chemical Messengers Information is transferred from one neuron to another at synapses by chemicals called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites much as a key fits into a lock, and their effects can be excitatory or inhibitory. Most psychoactive drugs act on the nervous system by increasing or decreasing the amount of neurotransmitter that crosses the synapse.Closely associated with the nervous system is the endocrine system, which is composed of glands that release hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones regulate levels of critical chemicals in the body. The major link between the endocrine and nervous systems is the hypothalamus.III. The Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system includes all nerves going to and from the brain and spinal cord. Its two major subdivisions are the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system includes all nerves carrying afferent (incoming) sensory information and efferent (outgoing) motor information to and from the sense organs and skeletal muscles.The autonomic nervous system includes those nerves outside the brain and spinal cord that maintain normal functioning of glands, heart muscle, and the smooth muscle of blood vessels and internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is further divided into two branches, the parasympathetic and the sympathetic, which tend to work in opposition to one another. The parasympathetic nervous system normally dominates when a person is relaxed and not under any physical or mental stress. Its main functions are to slow the heart rate, lower blood pressure, and increase digestion and elimination. The sympathetic nervous system dominates when a person is under physical or mental stress.It increases heart rate and blood pressure and slows digestive processes, mobilizing the body for fight or flight. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide.IV. The Central Nervous System The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The spinal cord is the communications link between the brain and the rest of the body below the neck. It is involved in all voluntary and reflex responses of the body below the neck. The major divisions of the brain are the cerebral cortex, the subcortical areas, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes. The frontal lobes control movement and speech, and are involved with self-awareness and planning ahead.The parietal lobes are the receiving area for sensory information. The occipital lobes are dedicated to vision and visual information processing. The temporal lobes are concerned with hearing and language. The most important structures in the subcortex are the corpus callosum, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the limbic system. The corpus callosum is a connecting bridge of axons between the two cerebral hemispheres. The thalamus is the major incoming sensory relay area of the brain. The hypothalamus regulates the endocrine system and body temperature, thirst, hunger, sex, and aggression. The limbic system is a group of brain structures involved with emotional behavior.Research shows relationships between hypothalamus, gender, and sexual orientation, but we do not know what is cause and what is effect. Recent research also seems to indicate that male and female differences may ultimately stem from early hormonal influence and anatomical differences in brain structure. The cerebellum, located at the base of the brain behind the brain stem, is responsible for smooth movement and coordinated motor activity. The brain stem is composed of the pons, the medulla, and the reticular activating system (RAS). The pons is involved with respiration, movement, facial expression, and sleep. The medulla mainly functions to control respiration.The RAS is a diffuse set of neurons associated with attention and arousal.V. Studying the Brain Anatomical research techniques refer to studying the brain’s structure through direct observation with cadavers or slide studies of brain tissue. Lesion techniques involve destroying part of an animal’s brain to study resultant changes in behavior. Electrical recording techniques involve implanting electrodes into the brain or on its surface to study the brain’s electrical activity. Electrical stimulation techniques allow researchers to activate neurons in a particular area of the brain. Splitbrain research is conducted with patients who have had their corpus callosum severed.Split-brain research suggests that the left hemisphere is specialized for language and analytical functions and the right hemisphere, for nonverbal abilities, including musical abilities and perceptual and spatiomanipulative skills. CAT, PET, and MRI scans are sophisticated techniques for studying intact, living brains. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide

SELF-TESTS (Review & wRite)

Completing the following SELF-TESTS will provide immediate feedback on how well you have mastered the material. In the fill-in exercises, write the appropriate word or words in the blank spaces. The matching exercise requires you to match the terms in one column to their correct definitions in the other. For the multiple-choice questions in Practice Tests I and II, circle or underline the correct answer.When you are unsure of any answer, be sure to highlight or specially mark the item and then go back to the text for further review. Correct answers are provided at the end of this study guide chapter.

FILL-IN EXERCISES

1. The two major divisions of the nervous system are the _______, which consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the ______, which consists of all nerves in the body outside the CNS (p. 48). 2. The major ions involved in the action and resting potential are the _________ and _________ (p. 50). 3. The fatty insulation on some axons that helps increase the speed of the action potential is known as _________ (p. 51). 4. Most psychoactive drugs have their effect at the _________ (p. 55). 5.The _________ part of the autonomic nervous system is dominant during normal, relaxed times, while the _______ is dominant during times of mental or physical stress (p. 60). 6. The _________ is involved in reflexes and relaying neural information to and from the brain (p. 63). 7. The _______ lobes are dedicated almost entirely to vision and visual perception (p. 68). 8. The _________ is an interconnected group of subcortical structures involved with memory and many types of emotional behavior, particularly fear and aggression (p. 71). 9. The structure that serves as a filter for incoming sensory information and is also important for attention and arousal is the _________ (p. 74). 10. Specialization of the hemispheres of the brain was first discovered as a result of _________ (p. 80).Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide

MATCHING EXERCISE

Reviewing Neuron Related Terminology Column A a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Neuron 1. ____ Resting Potential 2. ____ Myelin 3. ____ Nerve 4. ____ Soma 5. ____ Sodium-Potassium Pump 6. ____ Axons 7. ____ Action Potential 8. ____ Axon Terminal Buttons 9. ____ Dendrites 10. ____ Column B Receive information from other neurons. Integrates incoming information from dendrites. Release chemicals called neurotransmitters. Electrochemical impulse that travels down the axon. Resting state of the axon membrane. Sodium pumped out of axon and potassium moves in. Cells that transmit information throughout the body.A bundle of axons from many neurons. Fatty insulation that speeds up action potential. Specialized for transmitting action potentials.

PRACTICE TEST I

1. Cells within your body specialized for conducting information are called _____. a. dendrites b. neurons c. axons d. nucleotides The three major parts of a neuron are the _____. a. glia, dendrites, and myelin b. myelin, dendrites, and axon c. dendrites, axon, and soma d. axon, glia, and myelin An action potential travels along a myelinated axon about _____ times faster than along a bare axon. a. 10 b. 30 c. 100 d. 300 The major ions involved in the resting and action potential are _____. a. sodium and hydrogen b. ydrogen and potassium c. DNA and RNA d. potassium and sodium 2. 3. 4. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 5. Myelin, the fatty insulation surrounding the axon, is required for _____. a. complex cognitive tasks b. complex motor tasks c. increasing the speed of the action potential d. all of these options The synapse is the point where _____. a. the soma attaches to the dendrite b. neurotransmitters are manufactured c. information transfers from neuron to neuron d. the action potential begins Chemical messengers that are secreted into the synapse by axon terminal buttons are called _____. a. ions b. neurotransmitters c. nucleotides d. eurocommunicators The principle whereby an axon either fires or does not fire an action potential is called the _____ a. sodium-potassium principle b. axon terminal principle c. shotgun principle d. all-or-nothing principle The somatic nervous system includes all incoming _____ nerves and all outgoing _____ nerves. a. central, peripheral b. afferent, efferent c. peripheral, central d. efferent, afferent 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The parasympathetic and sympathetic are the major divisions of the _____ nervous system. a. b. c. d. autonomic somatic central automatic 11. The parasympathetic nervous system is dominant when a person is _____. a. b. c. d. stressed relaxed frightened angry Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 12.The system of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream is called the _____ system. a. b. c. d. lympathic hormonal endocrine reticular activating 13. The major divisions of the central nervous system are _____. a. b. c. d. sympathetic and parasympathetic somatic and autonomic gray matter and white matter brain and spinal cord 14. The frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes make up the _____. a. b. c. d. brain cerebral cortex subcortex brain stem 15. If you are accidentally hit on the head and you see flashes of light, most likely the blow activated cells in the _____. a. frontal lobes b. temporal lobes c. occipital lobes d. parietal lobes 16.The corpus callosum, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus are all _____. a. b. c. d. subcortical areas cortical areas brain stem areas spinal cord areas 17. Damage to the medulla can lead to loss of _____. a. b. c. d. vision respiration hearing smell 18. Split-brain research has indicated that, in most people, the left hemisphere is responsible for _____ abilities. a. musical b. spatial c. artistic d. mathematical Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 19. The control of voluntary movement is found in the _____. a. b. c. d. spinal cord frontal lobes subcortex brain stem 20. The three main brain scans discussed in the text are the _____. a. b. c. d.CAT, DOG, RAN PET, CAT, MRI BW, LEF, SS KSU, HSU, CSU

PRACTICE TEST II

1. Neurons are the basic units in the _____. a. nervous system b. synapses c. dendrites d. body The _____ integrates incoming information, absorbs nutrients, and produces proteins necessary for the functioning of the neuron. a. axon hillock b. myelin sheath c. synaptic gap d. soma An action potential is a(n) _____ impulse that travels through a neuron. a. ganglial b. muscular c. electrochemical d. neuroelectrical A nerve is composed of _____. a. myelin covered dendrites b. ganglial tissue c. a bundle of axons from many neurons d. somas Neurotransmitters are _____. a. charged ions that carry action potentials down the axon b. ormones that pass electrical energy from the dendrite into the soma c. chemical messengers that are released from an axon and stimulate dendrites on another neuron d. lubricants and nutrients needed by the soma to keep the neuron alive 2. 3. 4. 5. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 6. Morphine prevents pain perception in the brain by _____ action potentials. a. speeding up b. blocking c. slowing down d. mimicking Homeostasis occurs when body chemicals are _____. a. in a steady state b. plentiful c. scarce d. at moderate levels The hypothalamus is sometimes called the _____ because it regulates many bodily and psychological functions. . self-regulator b. homeostatic controller c. functional activator d. master endocrine gland Which of the paired words below shows the same relationship as the words in the following pair? afferent message : sensory message :: a. outgoing : incoming b. efferent message : motor message c. sensory message : perceptual message d. pain message : pleasure message 7. 8. 9. 10. The sensory and motor nerves that go to and from the central nervous system, body organs, and skeletal muscles make up the _____ nervous system. a. somatic b. fight or flight c. autonomic d. peripheral 11. The _____ system prepares your body to respond to stress. a. b. c. d. entral nervous fight or flight peripheral somatic 12. A reflex arc occurs in the _____. a. b. c. d. skeletal muscles brain spinal cord reticular activating system Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 13. A stroke that damages Wernicke’s area would affect a person’s ability to _____. a. b. c. d. make speech sounds read and write understand language read, write, and understand language 14. With regard to taking this test, the association areas of your brain are most involved in _____. a. b. c. d. holding your book or writing instrument thinking about and planning your answers seeing the written words vocalizing the words to yourself 15. The occipital lobes contain the sensory projection areas for _____. a. b. c. d. vision hearing smell and taste touch and pain 16. The corpus callosum _____. a. b. c. d. maintains your balance keeps you breathing connects your right and left cerebral hemispheres is the center of your personality 17. The limbic system is involved with your _____. a. b. c. d. ability to move and maintain posture sense of touch and pain basic bodily functions emotional behavior 18. Dr. LeVay found that the anterior hypothalamus was _____ in heterosexual men, compared to homosexual men and heterosexual women. a. twice as large b. smaller c. more densely packed with neurons d. the same size but weighed less 19.In the lesion technique for studying the brain, brain tissue is _____. a. b. c. d. replaced destroyed destroyed, then replaced injected with chemicals Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons Study and Review Guide 20. Split-brain patients _____. a. b. c. d. do not exist have split personalities cannot name an object if they hold it in their left hand without looking at it deteriorate gradually at first, then faster, and usually die within a year

ANSWERS

The following answers to active learning exercises, fill-ins, matching exercises, and practice tests 1 and 2 provide immediate feedback on your mastery of the material. Try not to simply memorize the answers.When you are unsure of your “guess” or make an error, be sure to go back to the textbook and carefully review. This will greatly improve your scores on classroom exams and quizzes.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE I

1. right and left occipital lobes; 2. left parietal lobe; 3. left and right temporal lobes; 4. right frontal lobe; 5. vision = left and right occipital lobes, language processing = left parietal lobe.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE II

Neuron Drawing a. dendrite, b. soma (cell body), c. nucleus, d. myelin sheath, e. axon, f. axon terminal button. Brain Drawing 1. Broca’s area, 2. frontal lobe, 3. temporal lobe, 4. cerebellum, 5. Wernicke’s area, 6. occipital lobe, 7. visual cortex, 8. parietal lobe, 9. sensory projection area, 10. motor control area.

ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISE III

Case 1: Left hemisphere, in the frontal and temporal lobes, probably Broca’s area. Case 2: He had his corpus callosum severed, and his frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes are not integrating information. Case 3: Left occipital lobe, corpus callosum.

FILL-IN EXERCISES

1. central nervous system, peripheral nervous system; 2. sodium, potassium; 3. myelin; 4. synapse; 5. parasympathetic, sympathetic; 6. spinal cord; 7. occipital; 8. limbic system; 9. reticular activating system (RAS); 10. split-brain operations. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons Study and Review Guide MATCHING EXERCISES a. 7, b. 5, c. 9, d. 8, e. 2, f. 6, g. 0, h. 4, i. 3, j. 1 PRACTICE TEST I 1. b (p. 48) 2. c (p. 48) 3. a (p. 51) 4. d (p. 50) 5. d (pp. 51, 53) 6. c (p. 53) 7. b (p. 53) 8. d (p. 54) 9. b (p. 59) 10. a (p. 60) 11. b (p. 60) 12. c (p. 56) 13. d (p. 63) 14. b (p. 66) 15. c (p. 68) 16. a (p. 69) 17. b (p. 74) 18. d (p. 80) 19. b (p. 67) 20. b (p. 81) PRACTICE TEST II 1. a (p. 48) 2. d (p. 48) 3. c (p. 48) 4. c (p. 49) 5. c (p. 53) 6. b (p. 56) 7. a (p. 57) 8. d (pp. 57-58) 9. b (p. 59) 10. a (pp. 59-60) 11. b (p. 60) 12. c (pp. 64-65) 13. d (p. 64) 14. b (p. 67) 15. a (p. 68) 16. c (p. 70) 17. d (p. 71) 18. a (pp. 72-73) 19. b (p. 79) 20. c (pp. 80-81).Copyright © 2000 John Wiley ; Sons

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