Science Energy Test study guide

Thermal energy
energy associated with heat
Nuclear energy
energy stored in the nucleus of an atom
Electromagnetic energy
energy that travels in waves
Mechanical energy
total KE and PE in a system
Gravitational potential energy
energy associated with how high up an object is
Electrical energy
energy associated with the movement of electrons
Chemical energy
energy stored in the bonds between atoms
Elastic potential energy
energy stored in objects that can be stretched or compressed
electrical to thermal and EM
Conversions: Lightbulb
electromagnetic to chemical
Conversions: Sun to Carrot
electrical to thermal
Conversions: plug to stove
chemical to mechanical
Conversions: ice cream to bike
chemical to mechanical
Conversions: gas tank to car
electrical to mechanical
Conversions: plug to blender
electrical to thermal and EM
Conversions: plug to lamp
nuclear to thermal
Conversions: sun
gravitational potential, elastic potential, chemical potential
Three types of potential energy
roller coaster, skydiver
Examples of Gravitational potential energy
rubber band, bow and arrow
Examples of elastic potential energy
food, battery, fossil fuels
Examples of chemical potential energy
mass and velocity
The two things the amount of kinetic energy depends on
1/2m vsquared
Kinetic energy formula
mgh OR wh
GPE formula
J (joule)
Unit of measure
times 9.8 m/s
mass to a weight
lowest point (KE)
Greatest KE
highest point (KE)
least KE
downhill
PE to KE
downhill (gaining speed)
Positive acceleration
uphill
KE to PE
highest point (PE)
greatest PE
lowest point (PE)
least PE
uphill (decreasing speed)
negative acceleration
coal, furnace, boiler, turbine, cooling tower, generator, electrical cables, step-up transformer, pylons, step-down transformer, homes, appliances
Order of electricity process
Coal
Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, or gas are brought to the power plant
Furnace
Fossil fuels are burned to convert chemical potential energy into thermal energy
Boiler
Water is turned to steam
Turbine
High-pressured steam turns a turbine attached to a generator
Cooling tower
Steam is condensed back into water and is sent back to the boiler to be reheated
Generator
Magnets spin around a copper wire, creating an electric current
Electrical cables
Electricity is carried from the power plant to the step-up transformers
Step-up transformer
Low voltage electricity is converted to high voltage so it can travel long distances
Pylons
High voltage electricity is carried through wires long distances to where it is needed
Step-down transformer
High voltage electricity is converted to low voltage suitable for home use
Houses
Wires run through walls carrying electricity where it is needed in homes
Appliances
Appliances can turn electrical energy into thermal, electromagnetic and mechanical energy
the sun
Fossil fuels contain energy that originally came from
coal, oil, and gas
The three types of fossil fuels are
sea level rise/flooding, drought, bad storms, loss of habitats
Four effects of global warming
wind, solar, hydro, biofuel, geothermal, tidal
Six renewable energy sources
nuclear
One alternative energy source that is NOT renewable
aluminum, glass, and plastic
Three examples of materials that can be recycled
Garbage out of landfills, saves money, saves natural resources
Three reasons to recycle
The greenhouse effect
Our atmosphere allows the sun’s radiation to enter, but some of the reflected heat from the earth’s surface is trapped
Global warming
This allows our planet to be livable: otherwise our planet would be too cold. However, we have allowed too much pollution to enter our atmosphere, and as a result our average yearly temperatures have risen
Ozone layer
Protects us from UV rays; a hole in it lets in way too many UV rays, causing increased skin cancer and cataracts.