Science Energy Test study guide

Thermal energy
energy associated with heat

Nuclear energy
energy stored in the nucleus of an atom

Electromagnetic energy
energy that travels in waves

Mechanical energy
total KE and PE in a system

Gravitational potential energy
energy associated with how high up an object is

Electrical energy
energy associated with the movement of electrons

Chemical energy
energy stored in the bonds between atoms

Elastic potential energy
energy stored in objects that can be stretched or compressed

electrical to thermal and EM
Conversions: Lightbulb

electromagnetic to chemical
Conversions: Sun to Carrot

electrical to thermal
Conversions: plug to stove

chemical to mechanical
Conversions: ice cream to bike

chemical to mechanical
Conversions: gas tank to car

electrical to mechanical
Conversions: plug to blender

electrical to thermal and EM
Conversions: plug to lamp

nuclear to thermal
Conversions: sun

gravitational potential, elastic potential, chemical potential
Three types of potential energy

roller coaster, skydiver
Examples of Gravitational potential energy

rubber band, bow and arrow
Examples of elastic potential energy

food, battery, fossil fuels
Examples of chemical potential energy

mass and velocity
The two things the amount of kinetic energy depends on

1/2m vsquared
Kinetic energy formula

mgh OR wh
GPE formula

J (joule)
Unit of measure

times 9.8 m/s
mass to a weight

lowest point (KE)
Greatest KE

highest point (KE)
least KE

PE to KE

downhill (gaining speed)
Positive acceleration

KE to PE

highest point (PE)
greatest PE

lowest point (PE)
least PE

uphill (decreasing speed)
negative acceleration

coal, furnace, boiler, turbine, cooling tower, generator, electrical cables, step-up transformer, pylons, step-down transformer, homes, appliances
Order of electricity process

Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, or gas are brought to the power plant

Fossil fuels are burned to convert chemical potential energy into thermal energy

Water is turned to steam

High-pressured steam turns a turbine attached to a generator

Cooling tower
Steam is condensed back into water and is sent back to the boiler to be reheated

Magnets spin around a copper wire, creating an electric current

Electrical cables
Electricity is carried from the power plant to the step-up transformers

Step-up transformer
Low voltage electricity is converted to high voltage so it can travel long distances

High voltage electricity is carried through wires long distances to where it is needed

Step-down transformer
High voltage electricity is converted to low voltage suitable for home use

Wires run through walls carrying electricity where it is needed in homes

Appliances can turn electrical energy into thermal, electromagnetic and mechanical energy

the sun
Fossil fuels contain energy that originally came from

coal, oil, and gas
The three types of fossil fuels are

sea level rise/flooding, drought, bad storms, loss of habitats
Four effects of global warming

wind, solar, hydro, biofuel, geothermal, tidal
Six renewable energy sources

One alternative energy source that is NOT renewable

aluminum, glass, and plastic
Three examples of materials that can be recycled

Garbage out of landfills, saves money, saves natural resources
Three reasons to recycle

The greenhouse effect
Our atmosphere allows the sun’s radiation to enter, but some of the reflected heat from the earth’s surface is trapped

Global warming
This allows our planet to be livable: otherwise our planet would be too cold. However, we have allowed too much pollution to enter our atmosphere, and as a result our average yearly temperatures have risen

Ozone layer
Protects us from UV rays; a hole in it lets in way too many UV rays, causing increased skin cancer and cataracts.