Science Cells

Question Answer
Anything that can live on its own organism
membrane covered structure that contains all the materials necessary for life cell
group of cells that work together to preform a specific job tissue
a group of tissues working together to preform a specific job organ
group of organs working together organ system
first saw cells in a cork Robert Hooke
first observed living cells in pond water Anton van Leeuwenhoek
-all organisms are composed of one or more cells-cell is the basic unit of life in all living things-all cells come from other cells cell theory
cells are small because the surface is not large enough to bring in enough nutrients or to get rid of enough waste to keep the cell alive -inside grows faster than outside-volume grows faster than surface area cell size
-i.e. bacteria-no nucleus-DNA floats freely prokaryote
-has nucleus which contains DNA-i.e. animal cells eukaryote
little organs of function organelle
jelly-like material that surrounds organelles cytoplasm
-allows nutrients and waste to move into and out of a cell-made of phospholipids that do not like water so it's semipermeable-all cells have a cell membrane cell membrane
-largest organelle-stores DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid-contains all the info to tell the organelles and the cell what to do nucleus
-in nucleus-stores material to make ribosomes nucleolus
-smallest and most abundant organelle-where amino acids ribosomes
-sacks and tunnels of membranes the carry substances to outside of the cell-types: rough and smooth-found a lot in cells that make protiens, lipids and enzymes-break down chemicals that harm cells endoplasmic reticulum
covered with ribosomes; transport proteins rough
is not covered with ribosomes smooth
-flattened stacked membranes-changes lipids and proteins, pinches them off into sacks and ships them out of the cell Golgi bodies
membrane bound structure that carries substances from golgi bodies vesicles
-contain digestive enzymes -breakdown old cells and bacteria-garbage trucks lymsosmes
-energy is released in this organelle from gluecose being broken down-active organs like muscles have more mitochondria-has cristae mitochondria
inner folds that increase the surface area so more gluecose can be broken down and more energy released cristae
-have organelles like a cell wall, choloroplasts, and vacuoles-square shape plant cells
-contain chlorophyll: green pigment-absorb sunlight to make food/sugar cholorplasts
made of cellulose and is tough and rigid cell wall
-sack that contains water, waste, and food-makes up most of cells volume vacuoles
animals cells are usually round
-magnifies objects-magnification: how much larger a specimen is when using a what microscope
-the models found in most schools, use compound lenses and light to magnify objects-the lenses bend or refract the light, which makes the object beneath them appear closer light microscope
-aims beam of light through thin slices of specimen-thicker pieces appear darker-magnifies up to 1,000,000x transmission electron microscope
-SEMs do not use light waves; they use electrons to look at surface of the object-magnify objects up to 2 million times-if you want to look at the surface you may have to cover the surface by a very thin layer of gold scanning electron microscope

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