science – Chemistry Flashcard

 

 

 

 

Fertilizer

– a substance  that enriches soil so that plants will grow better.

 -contains nitrigen(n) and potassium(k)

-can be natural o0r synthetic

 

 

 

 Pesticides

– chemicals used to kill pests.

 –pesticides are not selective- they kill pests and non-pests.

 

 

 

 

3 types of pesticides

1. herbicides– use to kill weeds

2. insecticides– use to kill insects

3.fungicides-use to kill fungi

 

 

 

solid waste 

 

 

 

 

– garbage collected from household,industrial plants and commercial buildings; from machinery to plastic  bottles.

 

 

 

 

sewage

– is a  wastewater  containing dissolved ande undissolved materials from your kitchen,bathroom, and laundry.

-moves through pipes into septic tank in rural areas on to sewage treatment plant in towns and cities.

 

 

 

 septic tank

– an underground container where the bacteria break down the organic materials before they are moved out to the soil.

 


sewage treatment plant

– treats watse from homes , businesses ,industries and institutions.

-it may also treat water from street drains.

 


effluent

– treated wastewater released into rivers amd lakes.

 


storm sewers

– large pipes that carry runoff water from yards and streets directly(without treatent) into a river,lake or ocean.

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human activities

-releases chemicals into the air,water aned soil.

 

-growing crops ,desposing of solid waste treating wastewater,manufacturing products, and drivibg vehicles are all examples of ways that we can change the concentration od some chemicals in the environment.

 

 


pollution

-any change in the environment that produces a condition taht is harmful to living things.

 


issue

-any subject of importance about which people have strong ,conflicting points of view.

 

 

3 examples of fossil fuels

 

1. oil

2.natural gas

3.coal

 

-because they formed from dead animals and plants.

 

 

 

acid shock

-periods of extreme acid rain.

 

 

 

industrial process

-such as electrical power genenration, mineral processing and fertilizer production may release chemicals into the air.

 

 

natural gas

– is composed of compounds such as met5hane ,etthane, propane, aand butane.it also contains nitrogen gas ,carbon dioxide ,hydrogen sulfide ,helium and traces of metals such as mercury.

-it is also process to eliminate unwanted substances such as hydrogen sulfide ,a poisonous chemical.(processing to its seperate components)

 



sour gas

-a natural gas that contains  H2S.

 

 

sweet gas

– a natural gas that dont present H2S.

 

 

acids

compound tht are dissolves in water to form a solution with a pH lower than 7 , taste sour,undergo similar chemical reactions.

 

 

 

bases

-compound that is dissolves in water  to form a solution with a pH higher than 7 ,taste bitter, feel slippery, react with acids.

 

 

pH

-number of a solution indicates its acidity. a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

 

 

 

acid-base indicators

(measuring pH)

-are substances that can change colour when they are placed in solution.

 

 

 

universal indicator

(measuring pH)

-is a  mixture o indicators that can change colours over a wide variety of pH levels.

 

 

 

red litmus

(measuring pH)

-turns blue  with the base

 

 

 

blue litmus

(measuring pH)

-turns red with an acid.

 

 

 

optimum amounts

-amount of a substance taht provides an organism with the best health.

-can have harmful effects if there is too much or little of nutrients.

* for humans , at least 70 mg (microrganisms) of selenium per day is recommended.

 

 

diffusion

-process in which molecules mvefrom an area of higher concentration [] to one of lower concentration[].

 

 

 

osmosis

-water moves through the walls of the plants roots where there are more water molecule     to an area where there are fewer water molecules.

 


acid shock

– peroids of extreme acid rain.

 



organic compounds

-compounds whose molecules contain carbon

-anything made from a living system

examples: fats,carbohydrates, proteins,nucleic acids

 



inorganic compounds

-compounds whose molecules do not contain carbon.

examples;rocks,minerals,elements.

 

 

nutrients

-elements and compounds that organisms need for growing,living and reproducing.

 



macronutrients

-nutrients taht organisms need n relatively large amounts

examples:C,H,O,N,C

-mainly organic materials

 



micronutrients


-nutrients that organisms need in only minor or trace amounts

-vitamins, minerals

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